Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
|RNA expression pattern|
The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) is a transmembrane receptor found in ovary, testis and extragonodal organs like uterus, that receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It has also been called luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). Its activation is necessary for the hormonal functioning during reproduction. LHCGRs are found in the ovary, testis, and many extragonadal tissues.
The gene for the LHCGR is found on chromosome 2 p21 in humans, close to the FSH receptor gene. It consists of 70kbp (versus 54 kpb for the FSHR). The gene is similar to the gene for the FSH receptor and the TSH receptor.
The LHCGR consists of 674 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 85-95 kDA based on the extent of glycolization.
Like other GPCRs the LHCG receptor possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices. The extracellular domain of the receptor is heavily glycosylated. These transmembrane domain contains two highly conserved cysteine residues which build disulfide bonds to stabilize the receptor structure. The transmembrane part is highly homologous with other members of the rhodopsin family of GPCRs. The C-terminal domain is intracellular and brief, rich in serine and threonine residues for possible phosphorylation.
Ligand binding and signal transduction
Upon binding LH externally to the membrane, a transduction of the signal takes place that activates the G protein that is bound to the receptor internally. With LH attached, the receptor shifts conformation and thus mechanically activates the G protein, which detaches from the receptor and activates the cAMP system.
It is believed that a receptor molecule exists in a conformational equilibrium between active and inactive states. The binding of LH (or CG) to the receptor shifts the equilibrium between active and inactive receptors. LH and LH-agonists shift the equilibrium in favor of active states; LH antagonists shift the equilibrium in favor of inactive states. For a cell to respond to LH only a small percentage (~1%) of receptor sites need to be activated.
Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was activated by the LHCG-receptor) via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramer with two regulatory units and two catalytic units. Upon binding of cAMP to the regulatory units, the catalytic units are released and initiate the phosphorylation of proteins leading to the physiologic action. The cyclic AMP-regulatory dimers are degraded by phosphodiesterase and release 5’AMP. DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) which results in the activation of genes.
The signal is amplified by the involvement of cAMP and the resulting phosphorylation. The process is modified by prostaglandins. Other cellular regulators are participate are the intracellular calcium concentration modified by phospholipase, nitric acid, and other growth factors.
In a feedback mechanism, these activated kinases phosphorylate the receptor. The longer the receptor remains active, the more kinases are activated, the more receptors are phosphorylated.
Other pathways of signaling exist for the LHCGR.
In the ovary, the LHCG receptor is necessary for follicular maturation and ovulation, as well as luteal function. Its expression requires appropriate hormonal stimulation by FSH and estradiol. The LHCGR is present on granulosa cells, theca cells, luteal cells, and interstitial cells The LCGR is restimulated by increasing levels of chorionic gonadotropins in case a pregnancy is developing. In turn, luteal function is prolonged and the endocrine milieu is supportive of the nascent pregnancy.
Normal LHCGR functioning is critical for male fetal development, as the fetal Leydig cells produce testosterone to induce masculinization.
LHCGR have been found in many types of extragonadal tissues, and the physiologic role of some has remained largely unexplored. Thus receptors have been found in the uterus, sperm, seminal vesicles, prostate, skin, breast, adrenals, thyroid, neural retina, neuroendocrine cells, and (rat) brain.
Upregulation refers to the increase in the number of receptor sites on the membrane. Estrogen and FSH upregulate LHCGR sites in preparation for ovulation. After ovulation, the luteinized ovary maintains LHCGR s that allow activation in case there is an implantation.
The LHCGRs become desensitized when exposed to LH for some time. A key reaction of this downregulation is the phosphorylation of the intracellular (or cytoplasmic) receptor domain by protein kinases. This process uncouples Gs protein from the LHCGR. Another way to desensitize is to uncouple the regulatory and catalytic units of the cAMP system.
Downregulation refers to the decrease in the number of receptor sites. This can be accomplished by metabolizing bound LHCGR sites. The bound LCGR complex is brought by lateral migration to a “coated pit” where such units are concentrated and then stabilized by a framework of clathrins. A pinched-off coated pit is internalized and degraded by lysosomes. Proteins may be metabolized or the receptor can be recycled. Use of long-acting agonists will downregulate the receptor population.
Antibodies to LHCGR can interfere with LHCGR activity.
Loss-of-function mutations in females can lead to infertility. In 46, XY individuals severe inactivation can cause male pseudohermaphroditism, as fetal Leydig cells during may not respond and induce masculinization. Less severe inactivation can result in hypospadias or a micropenis.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Simoni M, Gromoll J, Nieschlag E (1997). "The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and pathophysiology". Endocr. Rev. 18 (6): 739–73. doi:10.1210/er.18.6.739. PMID 9408742.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Ascoli M, Fanelli F, Segaloff DL (2002). "The lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor, a 2002 perspective". Endocr. Rev. 23 (2): 141–74. doi:10.1210/er.23.2.141. PMID 11943741.
- ↑ Dufau ML (1998). "The luteinizing hormone receptor". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60: 461–96. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.60.1.461. PMID 9558473.
- ↑ Ryu KS, Gilchrist RL, Koo YB, Ji I, Ji TH (1998). "Gene, interaction, signal generation, signal divergence and signal transduction of the LH/CG receptor". International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 60 Suppl 1: S9–20. doi:10.1016/S0020-7292(98)80001-5. PMID 9833610.
- ↑ Wu SM, Chan WY (1999). "Male pseudohermaphroditism due to inactivating luteinizing hormone receptor mutations". Arch. Med. Res. 30 (6): 495–500. doi:10.1016/S0188-4409(99)00074-0. PMID 10714363.
- Ji TH, Ryu KS, Gilchrist R, Ji I (1997). "Interaction, signal generation, signal divergence, and signal transduction of LH/CG and the receptor.". Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 52: 431-53; discussion 454. PMID 9238862.
- Dufau ML (1998). "The luteinizing hormone receptor.". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60: 461-96. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.60.1.461. PMID 9558473.
- Ascoli M, Fanelli F, Segaloff DL (2002). "The lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor, a 2002 perspective.". Endocr. Rev. 23 (2): 141-74. PMID 11943741.
- Amsterdam A, Hanoch T, Dantes A, et al. (2003). "Mechanisms of gonadotropin desensitization.". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 187 (1-2): 69-74. PMID 11988313.
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- IUPHAR GPCR Database - LH Receptor
- GRIS: Glycoprotein-hormone Receptor Information System
- MeSH LH-hCG+Receptors
|Hypothalamic hormone receptors||CRH - FSH - LHRH - TRH - Somatostatin|
|Pituitary hormone receptors||Vasopressin (1A, 1B, 2) - Oxytocin - LHCG - Type I cytokine receptor (GH, Prolactin) - TSH|
|Other hormone receptors||Atrial natriuretic factor - Calcitonin - Cholecystokinin (A, B) - VIP|
|Opioid receptors||Delta - Kappa - Mu - Sigma (1, 2) - Nociceptin|
|Other neuropeptide receptors||Angiotensin - Bradykinin (B1, B2) / Tachykinin (TACR1) - Calcitonin gene-related peptide - Galanin - GPCR neuropeptide (B/W, FF, S, Y) - Neurotensin|
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