Acute diarrhea causes

Jump to: navigation, search

Acute Diarrhea Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Acute Diarrhea from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Guidelines for Management

Case Studies

Case #1

Acute diarrhea causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Acute diarrhea causes

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Acute diarrhea causes

CDC on Acute diarrhea causes

Acute diarrhea causes in the news

Blogs on Acute diarrhea causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Psoriasis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Acute diarrhea causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2] Sudarshana Datta, MD [3]

Overview

Common causes of acute diarrhea in both developing and developed nations are infections. Infectious agents responsible for majority of cases include Norovirus, Salmonella, Shigella, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Rotavirus, Shigella, Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC), Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium parvum. Less commonly, acute diarrhea may be be caused by Norwalk viruses or may be associated with systemic infections including influenza, urinary tract infections, and HIV infection. Other common causes of acute diarrhea include food allergies and drug side effects. Less commonly, acute diarrhea can be a symptom of the initial stages of systemic conditions including Ischemic colitis, hyperthyroidism, tropical sprue and with disorders of digestion and the absorption.

Causes

Causes of acute diarrhea based on infectious agents are enlisted below. Common causes of diarrhea differ based on geographical location, food hygiene standards, sanitation, water supply, and the season. The causes include the following:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Bacterial causes of diarrhea

Viral causes of diarrhea

Protozoa

Systemic infections

Disorders of digestive/absorptive processes

Medications

Ingestion of plants (eg, hyacinths, daffodils, Amanita species mushrooms)

Food allergies

  • Cow's milk protein allergy
  • Soy protein allergy

Organophosphate poisoning

Opium withdrawal

Life threatening causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Portal vein thrombosis, superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Chemical / poisoning

Acrodynia, Amlodipine besylate and Atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, acute zinc toxicity, arsenic poisoning, Azacitidine , Cabozantinib carbamate insecticide poisoning, carbon monoxide poisoning, chlordane toxicity, chloroform toxicity, copper toxicity, diazinon poisoning, glutaraldehyde toxicity, heavy metal poisoning, lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, metal fume fever, naphthalene poisoning, organophosphate poisoning, paraquat toxicity, selenium toxicity, thallium toxicity

Dermatologic Acrodermatitis enteropathica, necrotizing fasciitis
Drug Side Effect

Ambenonium, 2C-B, 5-HT3 antagonist, 5-methoxy-diisopropyl tryptamine, abacavir, Acamprosate calcium, acarbose, acebutolol, Acetylcysteine, acyclovir, acitretin, aconitine, adefovir, afatinib, alatrofloxacin, albendazole, aldesleukin, Alemtuzumab, alendronate, aliskiren, allopurinol, alosetron, alpha-amanitin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, alprazolam, altretamine, ambenonium chloride, amifostine, amiloride, aminocaproic acid, aminophylline, amlexanox, amlodipine, Amlodipine besylate and Atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, ammonium lauryl sulfate, amoxicillin, amphetamine, amphotericin B, amprenavir, amitriptyline, anadenanthera peregrina, anagrelide, anakinra, anastrozole, Anidulafungin, anisindione, Apremilast, aprepitant, atazanavir, atenolol, atorvastatin, atovaquone, Atropine, auranofin, azithromycin, aztreonam, bacitracin, baclofen, barium nitrate, barium sulfate, Basiliximab, Benzphetamine, benazepril, bentiromide, bepridil, betaxolol, Bethanechol chloride, bevacizumab, bezafibrate, bicalutamide, biguanide, bisacodyl, bisoprolol, bortezomib, Bosutinib, bromocriptine, brompheniramine, bumetanide, buspirone, busulfan, candesartan, capecitabine, carbamazepine, carbidopa, carboplatin, carvedilol, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefamandole nafate, cefazolin, cefazolin, cefdinir, Cefditoren, cefepime, Cefixime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefotetan disodium, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, Cefprozil, Ceftaroline fosamil, ceftazidime, Ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cephalexin, cephradine, Ceritinib, cerivastatin, cetuximab, cevimeline, Chenodiol, chloral hydrate, chlorambucil, chlordiazepoxide, chlorodyne, chlorothiazide, chlorpheniramine, Chlorpropamide, chlorthalidone, cholestyramine, ciclosporin, cidofovir, cilostazol,, cinacalcet, cisapride, citalopram, cladribine, clamoxyquine, clarithromycin, clavulanic acid, clindamycin, clofarabine, clofibrate, clomipramine, clonazepam, clopidogrel, clorazepate, Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene, colchicine, colistimethate, conjugated estrogens, Crizotinib, cyclophosphamide, cyproheptadine, cytarabine, dactinomycin, dalfopristin, dantrolene, daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin, darunavir, dasatinib, daunorubicin, deferasirox, delavirdine, demeclocycline, Denileukin diftitox deracoxib, desoxyn, Dexchlorpheniramine, dextroamphetamine, dextromethorphan, diacerein, diazepam, diclofenac, dicloxacillin, didanosine, diflunisal, digitoxin, digoxin, diltiazem, dipyridamole, dirithromycin, disopyramide, docetaxel, dofetilide, dolasetron, donepezil, doripenem, doxorubicin, doxycycline, DTPA, duloxetine, Ecallantide, eculizumab, efavirenz, Elvitegravir, emtricitabine, Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine Hydrochloride, And Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate enalapril, endosulfan, enoxacin, entacapone, Epirubicin hydrochloride, eplerenone, epoetin alfa, ergotamine, erlotinib, Eliglustat, erythromycin, esomeprazole, estazolam, estradiol, ethacrynic acid, ethosuximide, etidronate, etodolac, etoposide, exemestane, exenatide, ezetimibe, famciclovir, famotidine, felbamate, Ferric oxyhydroxide, fexofenadine, floxuridine, foscarnet sodium, fluconazole, flucytosine, fludarabine, fluoride, fluorouracil, fluoxetine, flurazepam, Flurbiprofen, flutamide, fluticasone, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, fosamprenavir, foscarnet, fosinopril, frovatriptan, fulvestrant, gabapentin, galantamine, ganciclovir, gatifloxacin, gefitinib, gemcitabine, gemeprost, gemfibrozil, glatiramer, Glipizide, Glyburide and Metformin, glycopyrrolate, granisetron, griseofulvin, guanethidine, guanfacine, hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate hydroxyurea, hyoscyamine, ibandronate, Ibritumomab Tiuxetan ibuprofen, idarubicin, Idelalisib, Idursulfase, imatinib, Imiglucerase infliximab, interferon alfacon-1 , Interferon alfa-2b , interferon beta-1b, irinotecan hydrochloride, iron supplements, isocarboxazid, isradipine, itraconazole, Ivacaftor, Ivermectin, Ixabepilone, ketoconazole, Ketorolac tromethamine, Lactulose, lamivudine, lamotrigine, lanreotide, lansoprazole, lanthanum,Lapatinib, leflunomide, lenalidomide, letrozole, leuprolide, levalbuterol, levetiracetam, Lenvatinib, levocarnitine, levodopa, levofloxacin, Linaclotide, Lincomycin Hydrochloride, linezolid, liothyronine sodium, lisinopril, lithium, lomefloxacin, lopinavir, loracarbef, loratadine, lorazepam, loxapine, magnesium hydroxide, mebendazole, mechlorethamine, meclofenamate, Mercaptopurine, mefenamic acid, mefloquine, megestrol, Meloxicam, meprobamate, mercaptopurine, meropenem, mesalazine, mesna, mesoridazine, Metirosine, metformin, methamphetamine, methenamine, methotrexate, methoxychlor, methsuximide, methyclothiazide, methylergonovine, methyprylon, metoclopramide, metolachlor, metolazone, metoprolol, metronidazole, Micafungin sodium, miconazole, mifepristone, miglitol, Miglustat, miltefosine minocycline, misoprostol, mitotane, mitoxantrone, moclobemide, modafinil, moexipril, moricizine, moxifloxacin, mycophenolate, nabumetone, nafcillin, naltrexone, naphthalene, naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium, natalizumab, natamycin, nateglinide, nelfinavir, nevirapine, Niacin/simvastatin, niclosamide, Nilotinib, Nintedanib, nizatidine, norfloxacin, nystatin, ofloxacin, Olsalazine, omalizumab, omeprazole, ondansetron, oseltamivir, oxaliplatin, oxazepam, oxcarbazepine, oxtriphylline, oxybutynin, Palbociclib, palivizumab, pancrelipase, Panitumumab, pantoprazole, Paromomycin sulfate, Paroxetine, Pasireotide, pegaspargase, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed, pemoline, penbutolol, penicillin, pentamidine, pentostatin, pergolide, perindopril, perphenazine, Pertuzumab, phenazopyridine, Phenoxymethylpenicillin, phentermine, pilocarpine, pimecrolimus, pimozide, Pirfenidone, piroxicam, Plerixafor, Potassium iodide, plicamycin, polythiazide, posaconazole, Potassium chloride, Potassium citrate, pramipexole, pramlintide, prazepam, praziquantel, prazosin, procainamide, procarbazine, promethazine, propafenone, propranolol, permethrin, protriptyline, pseudoephedrine, Pyrantel pamoate, pyridostigmine, quinapril, quinidine, quinupristin, rabeprazole, Radium chloride, ramipril, Ramucirumab, ranitidine, rasagiline, Rasburicase, repaglinide, reserpine, retapamulin, ribavirin, rifabutin, rifampin, rilmenidine, riluzole, risedronate, risperidone, ritonavir, rituximab, rivastigmine, rizatriptan, Riluzole, roflumilast, Sacrosidase, salsalate, saquinavir mesylate, Saxagliptin hydrochloride and Metformin hydrochloride sargramostim, Secukinumab, selegiline, sevelamer, sildenafil, Siltuximab, simethicone, simvastatin, sirolimus, sitagliptin, sodium oxybate, sodium picosulfate, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, solanine, solifenacin, sorafenib, sotalol, sparfloxacin, spironolactone, stavudine, streptozocin, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulindac, sumatriptan, sunitinib, tacrine, Tacrolimus, tamsulosin, tedizolid, tegaserod, telbivudine, telithromycin, telmisartan, temozolomide, teniposide, tenofovir, terbinafine, teriparatide, tetraferric tricitrate decahydrate, Thallous Chloride Tl 201, theophylline, thiabendazole, thioguanine, thioridazine, thiothixene, thyroxine, ticlopidine, Tigecycline, tiludronate, tipranavir, tocopherol, tolcapone, Tolmetin, topiramate, topotecan, Trametinib dimethyl sulfoxide, trandolapril, tranylcypromine, trastuzumab, trazodone, treprostinil, Tretinoin, triamterene, triazolam, trifluoperazine, trihexyphenidyl, trimeprazine, trimethadione, trimethobenzamide, trimetrexate glucuronate, trimipramine, triprolidine, trovafloxacin, valacyclovir, valganciclovir, valproic acid, valsartan, verapamil, Vandetanib, Vilazodone, vinblastine, voriconazole, vorinostat, zanamivir, Zafirlukast, zidovudine, ziprasidone, zoledronic acid, zolmitriptan, Zoledronate

Ear Nose Throat Otitis media in children
Endocrine

Addison's disease, carcinoid syndrome, diabetes insipidus, diabetic neuropathy, glucagonoma, Graves disease, hyperthyroidism, hypoaldosteronism, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 neuroendocrine tumors, somatostatinoma, subacute thyroiditis

Environmental Abrus precatorious, agastache rugosa, alchornea castaneifolia, amanita phalloides poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning, azalea poisoning, bee stings, datura stramonium poisoning, endosulfan toxication, food poisoning, herbal extract overdose, honey intoxication, insect bite allergy, isomalt toxicity, lycorine, marine toxins, mushroom poisoning, narcissus pseudonarcissus, oleander poisoning, pesticide poisoning, phytohaemagglutinin poisoning, phytolacca americana toxicity, ricinus communis poisoning, snakebites, solanine poisoning
Gastroenterologic

Abdominal abscess, abdominal cancer, achlorhydria, acute appendicitis, acute gastritis, bile acid sequestrant, biliary atresia, biliary tract cancer, blind loop syndrome, caecitis, carcinoid syndrome, celiac disease, cholestatic jaundice, colitis, colonic inertia, colonic malakoplakia, colonic villous adenomata, colorectal cancer, colorectal polyps, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, enteritis, enterocele, enterocolitis, food poisoning, fructose malabsorption, gastric dumping syndrome, gastrinoma, gastritis, gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal amyloidosis, glucose-galactose malabsorption, gluten sensitivity, Habba syndrome ileitis, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lymphangiectasis, intestinal pseudoobstruction, intususception, irritable bowel syndrome, ischemic colitis, lactose intolerance, listeriosis, malabsorption syndrome, malassimilation, Meckel diverticulitis, polyposis, proctitis, protein losing enteropathy, tropical sprue, ulcerative colitis, Whipple's disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Genetic

3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, abetalipoproteinaemia, Arakawa's syndrome II, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, aspartylglycosaminuria, Baber's syndrome, Brown-symmers disease, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1B, congenital intrinsic factor deficiency, congenital short bowel syndrome, congenital toxoplasmosis, Cornelia de Lange syndrome 2, Cronkhite-Canada disease, dibasic aminoaciduria 2, Fabry's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, galactosemia, Gardner's syndrome, Gilbert's syndrome, glutathione synthetase deficiency, Hartnup disease, hereditary angioedema, HNPCC, hyper IgM syndrome, hyperlipoproteinemia type I, inborn amino acid metabolism disorder, juvenile polyposis syndrome, lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, malonic aciduria, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, mucopolysaccharidosis, neuroblastoma, neurofibromatosis, Sanfilippo syndrome, Slone's disease, sphingolipidosis, sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, Turcot syndrome, very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Von Gierke disease, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Hematologic

Amyloidosis, C1 esterase inhibitor, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, hyper IgM syndrome, idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, myleofibrosis, neutropenia, porphyria Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Iatrogenic

Adjustable gastric band, colonoscopy, dumping syndrome, graft versus host disease, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, postileal resection, postvagotomy, radiation proctitis, rectal surgery, radiation sickness, short bowel syndrome, vaccination

Infectious Disease

Adenophorea, adenoviridae, aeromonas hydrophila, AIDS, amebiasis, ancylostoma duodenale, anguillulosis, anthrax, ascariasis, astrovirus, bacillary dysentery, bacillus cereus, bacterial toxin, balantidiasis, beef tapeworm, blastocystis hominis, borrelia anserina, botulism, campylobacter jejuni, candida, capillaria, cestoda, ciguatera poisoning, clostridium difficile, clostridium perfringens, clostridium sordellii, clostridium welchii, coccidia, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, cysticercosis, cytomegalovirus, dientamoeba fragilis, diphyllobothrium infection, dipylidium caninum infection, Ebola, echinococcosis, ehrlichiosis, entamoeba histolytica, escherichia coli, fasciolopsiasis, filariasis, flavivirus, fusarium venenatum, giardia lamblia, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, helminthiasis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, hepatitis E, hepatitis X, hookworm infection, isosporiasis, katayama fever, lassa fever, legionella pneumophila, legionnaires' disease, leptospirosis, lymphogranuloma venereum, malaria, marburg virus, measles, metagonimiasis, mycobacterium avium complex, norwalk gastroenteritis, opisthorchis infection, paragonimus infection, pelvic abscess, pseudomembranous colitis, psittacosis, Q fever, rhabditida, rotavirus, roundworm, salmonellosis, sarcocystis, schistosomiasis, secernentea, shigellosis, small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, staphylococcal food poisoning, staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome, streptobacillus, streptococcal infections, strongyloides, tapeworms, trematoda, trichinella spiralis, trichinosis, trichuriasis, tularemia, typhoid fever, vancomycin, vibrio cholerae, vibrio mimicus, vibrio parahemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, visceral leishmaniasis, Whipple disease, whipworm infection, yersinia enterocolitica

Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic Common migraine, neuroblastoma, Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome
Nutritional / Metabolic

Folate deficiency, food allergies, food intolerances, iron supplements, kwashiorkor, lactose intolerance, milk allergy, pellagra, pernicious anemia, protein losing enteropathy, sucrose intolerance, vitamin C toxicity, zinc deficiency

Obstetric/Gynecologic Childbirth, endometriosis, neonatal sepsis, ovarian cancer, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Oncologic

Adrenal tumor, carcinoid syndrome, colorectal cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, Gardner's syndrome, gastric cancer, HNPCC, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Kaposi's sarcoma, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, neuroendocrine tumors, pancreatic adenoma, peritoneal mesothelioma, neuroendocrine tumors, ovarian cancer, small bowel lymphoma, somatostatinoma, thymus cancer, Vipoma,

Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity

Carbon monoxide toxicity, carnitine overuse, colchicine toxicity, digoxin toxicity, ergotism, heavy metal ingestion, mazindol

Psychiatric Anxiety-tension syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, dissociative disorder, panic attack
Pulmonary Anthrax, cystic fibrosis, diffuse systemic sclerosis, legionellosis
Renal / Electrolyte Acute kidney failure, chronic renal failure, hyperchloremia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy

Acquired angioedema, Amyloidosis, anaphylaxis, autoimmune adrenalitis, autoimmune enteropathy, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, autonomic neuropathy, C1 esterase inhibitor, chronic granulomatous disease, complement 5 deficiency, hereditary angioedema, hyper IgM syndrome, Kawasaki disease, Omenn syndrome, Reiter’s syndrome, Satoyoshi syndrome, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic Proctitis, Reiter’s syndrome
Miscellaneous

Alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, anopsology

Causes in Alphabetical Order

The unnamed parameter 2= is no longer supported. Please see the documentation for {{columns-list}}.
5

References

  1. Mokomane M, Kasvosve I, de Melo E, Pernica JM, Goldfarb DM (2018). "The global problem of childhood diarrhoeal diseases: emerging strategies in prevention and management". Ther Adv Infect Dis. 5 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1177/2049936117744429. PMC 5761924. PMID 29344358.
  2. de Bruyn G (2008). "Diarrhoea in adults (acute)". BMJ Clin Evid. 2008. PMC 2907942. PMID 19450323.
  3. Chiejina M, Samant H. PMID 29262044. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. Dalby-Payne JR, Elliott EJ (2009). "Gastroenteritis in children". BMJ Clin Evid. 2009. PMC 2907797. PMID 21726481.
  5. Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, Wu Y, Sow SO, Sur D, Breiman RF, Faruque AS, Zaidi AK, Saha D, Alonso PL, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ochieng JB, Omore R, Oundo JO, Hossain A, Das SK, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Adegbola RA, Antonio M, Hossain MJ, Akinsola A, Mandomando I, Nhampossa T, Acácio S, Biswas K, O'Reilly CE, Mintz ED, Berkeley LY, Muhsen K, Sommerfelt H, Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM (2013). "Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study". Lancet. 382 (9888): 209–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60844-2. PMID 23680352.
  6. Chhabra P, Payne DC, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Shirley SH, Wikswo M, Nix WA, Lu X, Parashar UD, Vinjé J (2013). "Etiology of viral gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in the United States, 2008-2009". J. Infect. Dis. 208 (5): 790–800. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit254. PMID 23757337.
  7. Pang XL, Honma S, Nakata S, Vesikari T (2000). "Human caliciviruses in acute gastroenteritis of young children in the community". J. Infect. Dis. 181 Suppl 2: S288–94. doi:10.1086/315590. PMID 10804140.
  8. Cohen MB (1991). "Etiology and mechanisms of acute infectious diarrhea in infants in the United States". J. Pediatr. 118 (4 Pt 2): S34–9. PMID 2007955.
  9. Irikura D, Monma C, Suzuki Y, Nakama A, Kai A, Fukui-Miyazaki A, Horiguchi Y, Yoshinari T, Sugita-Konishi Y, Kamata Y (2015). "Identification and Characterization of a New Enterotoxin Produced by Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Food Poisoning Outbreaks". PLoS ONE. 10 (11): e0138183. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138183. PMC 4652906. PMID 26584048.
  10. Surawicz CM (2003). "Antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: how many dirty diapers?". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 37 (1): 2–3. PMID 12826999.

Linked-in.jpg