Colchicine

Jump to: navigation, search
Colchicine
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

Disclaimer

WikiDoc MAKES NO GUARANTEE OF VALIDITY. WikiDoc is not a professional health care provider, nor is it a suitable replacement for a licensed healthcare provider. WikiDoc is intended to be an educational tool, not a tool for any form of healthcare delivery. The educational content on WikiDoc drug pages is based upon the FDA package insert, National Library of Medicine content and practice guidelines / consensus statements. WikiDoc does not promote the administration of any medication or device that is not consistent with its labeling. Please read our full disclaimer here.

Overview

Colchicine is an alkaloid that is FDA approved for the treatment of gout flares in adults and familial mediterranean fever (FMF) in adults and children 4 years or older. Common adverse reactions include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and pharyngolaryngeal pain.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Gout Flares
  • Dosing Information
  • Prophylaxis of Gout Flares:
  • The recommended dosage of COLCRYS for prophylaxis of gout flares for adults and adolescents older than 16 years of age is 0.6 mg once or twice daily. The maximum recommended dose for prophylaxis of gout flares is 1.2 mg/day.
  • Treatment of Gout Flares:
  • The recommended dose of COLCRYS for treatment of a gout flare is 1.2 mg (2 tablets) at the first sign of the flare followed by 0.6 mg (1 tablet) one hour later. Higher doses have not been found to be more effective. The maximum recommended dose for treatment of gout flares is 1.8 mg over a 1 hour period. COLCRYS may be administered for treatment of a gout flare during prophylaxis at doses not to exceed 1.2 mg (2 tablets) at the first sign of the flare followed by 0.6 mg (1 tablet) one hour later. Wait 12 hours and then resume the prophylactic dose.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)
  • Dosing Information
  • The recommended dosage of COLCRYS for FMF in adults is 1.2 mg to 2.4 mg daily.
Dose Modification for Co-administration of Interacting Drugs
  • Concomitant Therapy:
  • Co-administration of COLCRYS with drugs known to inhibit CYP3A4 and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) increases the risk of colchicine-induced toxic effects (Table 1). If patients are taking or have recently completed treatment with drugs listed in Table 1 within the prior 14 days, the dose adjustments are as shown on the table below.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Gout Flares
  • Prophylaxis of Gout Flares:
  • For prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with mild (estimated creatinine clearance Clcr 50 – 80 mL/min) to moderate (Clcr 30 – 50 mL/min) renal function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. However, in patients with severe impairment, the starting dose should be 0.3 mg per day and any increase in dose should be done with close monitoring. For the prophylaxis of gout flares in patients undergoing dialysis, the starting doses should be 0.3 mg given twice a week with close monitoring.
  • Treatment of Gout Flares:
  • For treatment of gout flares in patients with mild (Clcr 50 – 80 mL/min) to moderate (Clcr 30 – 50 mL/min) renal function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. However, in patients with severe impairment, while the dose does not need to be adjusted for the treatment of gout flares, a treatment course should be repeated no more than once every 2 weeks. For patients with gout flares requiring repeated courses consideration should be given to alternate therapy. For patients undergoing dialysis, the total recommended dose for the treatment of gout flares should be reduced to a single dose of 0.6 mg (1 tablet). For these patients, the treatment course should not be repeated more than once every 2 weeks.
  • Treatment of gout flares with COLCRYS is not recommended in patients with renal impairment who are receiving COLCRYS for prophylaxis.
  • FMF:
  • Caution should be taken in dosing patients with moderate and severe renal impairment and in patients undergoing dialysis. For these patients, the dosage should be reduced. Patients with mild (Clcr 50 – 80 mL/min) and moderate (Clcr 30 – 50 mL/min) renal impairment should be monitored closely for adverse effects of COLCRYS. Dose reduction may be necessary. For patients with severe renal failure (Clcr less than 30 mL/minute), start with 0.3 mg/day; any increase in dose should be done with adequate monitoring of the patient for adverse effects of colchicine. For patients undergoing dialysis, the total recommended starting dose should be 0.3 mg (half tablet) per day. Dosing can be increased with close monitoring. Any increase in dose should be done with adequate monitoring of the patient for adverse effects of colchicine.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Colchicine in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Actinic keratosis
  • Dosing Information
  • Topical colchicine 0.5% or 1% (incorporated into hydrophilic ointment or gel).
Amyloidosis
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine dosage of greater than 1.5 mg/day.
Aphthous ulcer of mouth
  • Dosing Information
  • Oral colchicine 0.5 mg three times daily.
Behcet's syndrome
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine 0.5 milligrams twice daily.
Condyloma acuminatum
  • Dosing Information
  • 10 mL 0.5% colchicine solution.
Constipation
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine (0.6 milligram 3 times daily).
Pericarditis, Recurrent; Prophylaxis
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine 1 to 2 mg on day 1 followed by 0.5 to 1 mg/day in 2 divided doses every 12 hours for 6 months.[1]
Peyronie's disease, Fibrosis and/or non-suppurative inflammation
  • Dosing Information
  • colchicine 1 mg every 12 hours.
Pseudogout
  • Dosing Information
  • Prophylactic colchicine 0.6 milligram twice daily orally .
Psoriasis
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine 0.02 milligram/kilogram/day for 2 to 4 months.
Vasculitis
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine (0.5 to 0.6 milligram 2 to 3 times daily).

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)
  • Dosing Information
  • The recommended dosage of COLCRYS for FMF in pediatric patients 4 years of age and older is based on age. The following daily doses may be given as a single or divided dose twice daily:
    • Children 4 – 6 years: 0.3 mg to 1.8 mg daily
    • Children 6 – 12 years: 0.9 mg to 1.8 mg daily
    • Adolescents older than 12 years: 1.2 mg to 2.4 mg daily

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Colchicine in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Bullous dermatosis
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine 0.5 milligrams twice daily.
Pericarditis, Recurrent; Prophylaxis
  • Dosing Information
  • Colchicine (0.25 to 0.5 milligrams daily for 6 months).

Contraindications

  • Patients with renal or hepatic impairment should not be given COLCRYS in conjunction with P-gp or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (this includes all protease inhibitors, except fosamprenavir). In these patients, life-threatening and fatal colchicine toxicity has been reported with colchicine taken in therapeutic doses.

Warnings

Precautions

  • Fatal Overdose
  • Fatal overdoses, both accidental and intentional, have been reported in adults and children who have ingested colchicine. COLCRYS should be kept out of the reach of children.
  • Blood Dyscrasias
  • Drug Interactions
  • Colchicine is a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate. Life-threatening and fatal drug interactions have been reported in patients treated with colchicine given with P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If treatment with a P-gp or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is required in patients with normal renal and hepatic function, the patient's dose of colchicine may need to be reduced or interrupted. Use of COLCRYS in conjunction with P-gp or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (this includes all protease inhibitors, except fosamprenavir) is contraindicated in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.
  • Neuromuscular Toxicity

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying and controlled conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug, and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population in clinical practice.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with a gout flare, gastrointestinal adverse reactions occurred in 26% of patients using the recommended dose (1.8 mg over 1 hour) of COLCRYS compared to 77% of patients taking a non-recommended high-dose (4.8 mg over 6 hours) of colchicine and 20% of patients taking placebo. Diarrhea was the most commonly reported drug-related gastrointestinal adverse event. As shown in Table 3, diarrhea is associated with COLCRYS treatment. Diarrhea was more likely to occur in patients taking the high-dose regimen than the low-dose regimen. Severe diarrhea occurred in 19% and vomiting occurred in 17% of patients taking the non-recommended high-dose colchicine regimen but did not occur in the recommended low-dose COLCRYS regimen.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Postmarketing Experience

  • These most often occur with excessive accumulation or overdosage.
  • The following adverse reactions have been reported with colchicine. These have been generally reversible upon temporarily interrupting treatment or lowering the dose of colchicine.
Neurological

Sensory motor neuropathy

Dermatological

Alopecia, maculopapular rash, purpura, rash

Digestive

Abdominal cramping, abdominal pain, diarrhea, lactose intolerance, nausea, vomiting

Hematological

Leukopenia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia

Hepatobiliary

Elevated AST, elevated ALT

Musculoskeletal

Myopathy, elevated CPK, myotonia, muscle weakness, muscle pain, rhabdomyolysis

Reproductive

Azoospermia, oligospermia

Drug Interactions

  • COLCRYS (colchicine) is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Of the cytochrome P450 enzymes tested, CYP3A4 was mainly involved in the metabolism of colchicine. If COLCRYS is administered with drugs that inhibit P-gp, most of which also inhibit CYP3A4, increased concentrations of colchicine are likely. Fatal drug interactions have been reported.
  • Physicians should ensure that patients are suitable candidates for treatment with COLCRYS and remain alert for signs and symptoms of toxicities related to increased colchicine exposure as a result of a drug interaction. Signs and symptoms of COLCRYS toxicity should be evaluated promptly and, if toxicity is suspected, COLCRYS should be discontinued immediately.
  • Table 4 provides recommendations as a result of other potentially significant drug interactions. Table 1 provides recommendations for strong and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and P-gp inhibitors.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with colchicine in pregnant women. Colchicine crosses the human placenta. While not studied in the treatment of gout flares, data from a limited number of published studies found no evidence of an increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, or teratogenic effects among pregnant women using colchicine to treat familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Although animal reproductive and developmental studies were not conducted with COLCRYS, published animal reproduction and development studies indicate that colchicine causes embryofetal toxicity, teratogenicity, and altered postnatal development at exposures within or above the clinical therapeutic range. COLCRYS should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Colchicine in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

  • The effect of colchicine on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

  • Colchicine is excreted into human milk. Limited information suggests that exclusively breast-fed infants receive less than 10 percent of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. While there are no published reports of adverse effects in breast-feeding infants of mothers taking colchicine, colchicine can affect gastrointestinal cell renewal and permeability. Caution should be exercised and breast-feeding infants should be observed for adverse effects when COLCRYS is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

  • The safety and efficacy of colchicine in children of all ages with FMF has been evaluated in uncontrolled studies. There does not appear to be an adverse effect on growth in children with FMF treated long-term with colchicine. Gout is rare in pediatric patients, safety and effectiveness of colchicine in pediatric patients has not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • Clinical studies with colchicine for prophylaxis and treatment of gout flares and for treatment of FMF did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient with gout should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased renal function, concomitant disease, or other drug therapy.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Colchicine with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Colchicine with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • Colchicine is significantly excreted in urine in healthy subjects. Clearance of colchicine is decreased in patients with impaired renal function. Total body clearance of colchicine was reduced by 75% in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.
  • Prophylaxis of Gout Flares:
  • For prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with mild (estimated creatinine clearance Clcr 50 – 80 mL/min) to moderate (Clcr 30 – 50 mL/min) renal function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. However, in patients with severe impairment, the starting dose should be 0.3 mg per day and any increase in dose should be done with close monitoring. For the prophylaxis of gout flares in patients undergoing dialysis, the starting doses should be 0.3 mg given twice a week with close monitoring.
  • Treatment of Gout Flares:
  • For treatment of gout flares in patients with mild (Clcr 50 – 80 mL/min) to moderate (Clcr 30 – 50 mL/min) renal function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of COLCRYS. However, in patients with severe impairment, while the dose does not need to be adjusted for the treatment of gout flares, a treatment course should be repeated no more than once every 2 weeks. For patients with gout flares requiring repeated courses consideration should be given to alternate therapy. For patients undergoing dialysis, the total recommended dose for the treatment of gout flares should be reduced to a single dose of 0.6 mg (1 tablet). For these patients, the treatment course should not be repeated more than once every 2 weeks.
  • FMF
  • Although, pharmacokinetics of colchicine in patients with mild (Clcr 50 – 80 mL/min) and moderate (Clcr 30 – 50 mL/min) renal impairment is not known, these patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. Dose reduction may be necessary. In patients with severe renal failure (Clcr less than 30 mL/minute) and end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, COLCRYS may be started at the dose of 0.3 mg/day. Any increase in dose should be done with adequate monitoring of the patient for adverse effects of COLCRYS.

Hepatic Impairment

  • The clearance of colchicine may be significantly reduced and plasma half-life prolonged in patients with chronic hepatic impairment, compared to healthy subjects.
  • Prophylaxis of Gout Flares:
  • For prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with mild to moderate hepatic function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. Dose reduction should be considered for the prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
  • Treatment of Gout Flares:
  • For treatment of gout flares in patients with mild to moderate hepatic function impairment, adjustment of the recommended COLCRYS dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of COLCRYS. However, for the treatment of gout flares in patients with severe impairment while the dose does not need to be adjusted, the treatment course should be repeated no more than once every 2 weeks. For these patients, requiring repeated courses for the treatment of gout flares, consideration should be given to alternate therapy.
  • FMF
  • In patients with severe hepatic disease, dose reduction should be considered with careful monitoring.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Colchicine in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Colchicine in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Colchicine in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Colchicine in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • The exact dose of colchicine that produces significant toxicity is unknown. Fatalities have occurred after ingestion of a dose as low as 7 mg over a 4-day period, while other patients have survived after ingesting more than 60 mg. A review of 150 patients who overdosed on colchicine found that those who ingested less than 0.5 mg/kg survived and tended to have milder toxicities, such as gastrointestinal symptoms, whereas those who took 0.5 to 0.8 mg/kg had more severe reactions, such as myelosuppression. There was 100% mortality in those who ingested more than 0.8 mg/kg.

The first stage of acute colchicine toxicity typically begins within 24 hours of ingestion and includes gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and significant fluid loss, leading to volume depletion. Peripheral leukocytosis may also be seen. Life-threatening complications occur during the second stage, which occurs 24 to 72 hours after drug administration, attributed to multi-organ failure and its consequences. Death is usually a result of respiratory depression and cardiovascular collapse. If the patient survives, recovery of multi-organ injury may be accompanied by rebound leukocytosis and alopecia starting about 1 week after the initial ingestion.

Management

  • Treatment of colchicine poisoning should begin with gastric lavage and measures to prevent shock. Otherwise, treatment is symptomatic and supportive. No specific antidote is known. Colchicine is not effectively removed by dialysis.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Colchicine in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Colchicine.png
Colchicine1.gif
Colchicine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-​[(7S)-​1,​2,​3,​10-​tetramethoxy-​9-​oxo-​5,​6,​7,​9-​tetrahydrobenzo​[a]​heptalen-​7-​yl]​acetamide
Identifiers
CAS number 64-86-8
ATC code M04AC01
PubChem 6167
DrugBank DB01394
Chemical data
Formula C22H25NO6 
Mol. mass 399.437
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 45%
Protein binding 34-44%
Metabolism Metabolism, partly by CYP3A4
Half life 26.6-31.2 hours
Excretion Faeces (65%)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

D(AU) C(US)

Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) ?(CA) POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

  • The mechanism by which COLCRYS exerts its beneficial effect in patients with FMF has not been fully elucidated; however, evidence suggests that colchicine may interfere with the intracellular assembly of the inflammasome complex present in neutrophils and monocytes that mediates activation of interleukin-1β. Additionally, colchicine disrupts cytoskeletal functions through inhibition of β-tubulin polymerization into microtubules, and consequently prevents the activation, degranulation, and migration of neutrophils thought to mediate some gout symptoms.

Structure

  • Colchicine is an alkaloid chemically described as (S)N- (5,6,7,9-tetrahydro- 1,2,3, 10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo [alpha] heptalen-7-yl) acetamide with a molecular formula of C22H25NO6 and a molecular weight of 399.4. The structural formula of colchicine is given below.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Colchicine occurs as a pale yellow powder that is soluble in water.
  • COLCRYS® (colchicine, USP) tablets are supplied for oral administration as purple, film-coated, capsule-shaped tablets (0.1575" × 0.3030"), debossed with 'AR 374' on one side and scored on the other, containing 0.6 mg of the active ingredient colchicine USP. Inactive ingredients: carnauba wax, FD&C blue #2, FD&C red #40, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Colchicine in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Absorption
  • In healthy adults, COLCRYS is absorbed when given orally, reaching a mean Cmax of 2.5 ng/mL (range 1.1 to 4.4 ng/mL) in 1 to 2 hours (range 0.5 to 3 hours) after a single dose administered under fasting conditions.
  • Following oral administration of COLCRYS given as 1.8 mg colchicine over 1 hour to healthy, young adults under fasting conditions, colchicine appears to be readily absorbed, reaching mean maximum plasma concentrations of 6.2 ng/mL at a median 1.81 hours (range: 1.0 to 2.5 hours). Following administration of the non-recommended high-dose regimen (4.8 mg over 6 hours), mean maximal plasma concentrations were 6.8 ng/mL, at a median 4.47 hours (range: 3.1 to 7.5 hours).
  • After 10 days on a regimen of 0.6 mg twice daily, peak concentrations are 3.1 to 3.6 ng/mL (range 1.6 to 6.0 ng/mL), occurring 1.3 to 1.4 hours post-dose (range 0.5 to 3.0 hours). Mean pharmacokinetic parameter values in healthy adults are shown in Table 5 below.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In some subjects, secondary colchicine peaks are seen, occurring between 3 and 36 hours post-dose and ranging from 39% to 155% of the height of the initial peak. These observations are attributed to intestinal secretion and reabsorption and/or biliary recirculation.
  • Absolute bioavailability is reported to be approximately 45%.
  • Administration of COLCRYS with food has no effect on the rate of colchicine absorption, but did decrease the extent of colchicine by approximately 15%. This is without clinical significance.
  • Distribution
  • The mean apparent volume of distribution in healthy young volunteers was approximately 5 to 8 L/kg.
  • Colchicine binding to serum protein is low, 39 ± 5%, primarily to albumin regardless of concentration.
  • Colchicine crosses the placenta (plasma levels in the fetus are reported to be approximately 15% of the maternal concentration). Colchicine also distributes into breast milk at concentrations similar to those found in the maternal serum.
  • Metabolism
  • Colchicine is demethylated to two primary metabolites, 2-O-demethylcolchicine and 3-O-demethylcolchicine (2- and 3-DMC, respectively), and one minor metabolite, 10-O-demethylcolchicine (also known as colchiceine). In vitro studies using human liver microsomes have shown that CYP3A4 is involved in the metabolism of colchicine to 2- and 3-DMC. Plasma levels of these metabolites are minimal (less than 5% of parent drug).
  • Elimination/Excretion
  • In healthy volunteers (n=12) 40 – 65% of 1 mg orally administered colchicine was recovered unchanged in urine. Enterohepatic recirculation and biliary excretion are also postulated to play a role in colchicine elimination. Following multiple oral doses (0.6 mg twice daily), the mean elimination half-lives in young healthy volunteers (mean age 25 to 28 years of age) is 26.6 to 31.2 hours. Colchicine is a substrate of P-gp.
  • Extracorporeal Elimination: Colchicine is not removed by hemodialysis.
  • Special Populations
  • There is no difference between men and women in the pharmacokinetic disposition of colchicine.
  • Pediatric Patients: Pharmacokinetics of colchicine was not evaluated in pediatric patients.
  • Elderly: Pharmacokinetics of colchicine has not been determined in elderly patients. A published report described the pharmacokinetics of 1 mg oral colchicine tablet in four elderly women compared to six young healthy males. The mean age of the four elderly women was 83 years (range 75 – 93), mean weight was 47 kg (38 – 61 kg) and mean creatinine clearance was 46 mL/min (range 25 – 75 mL/min). Mean peak plasma levels and AUC of colchicine were two times higher in elderly subjects compared to young healthy males. However, it is possible that the higher exposure in the elderly subjects was due to decreased renal function.
  • Renal impairment: Pharmacokinetics of colchicine in patients with mild and moderate renal impairment is not known. A published report described the disposition of colchicine (1 mg) in young adult men and women with FMF who had normal renal function or end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Patients with end-stage renal disease had 75% lower colchicine clearance (0.17 vs 0.73 L/hr/kg) and prolonged plasma elimination half-life (18.8 hrs vs 4.4 hrs) as compared to subjects with FMF and normal renal function.
  • Hepatic impairment: Published reports on the pharmacokinetics of IV colchicine in patients with severe chronic liver disease, as well as those with alcoholic or primary biliary cirrhosis, and normal renal function suggest wide inter-patient variability. In some subjects with mild to moderate cirrhosis, the clearance of colchicine is significantly reduced and plasma half-life prolonged compared to healthy subjects. In subjects with primary biliary cirrhosis, no consistent trends were noted. No pharmacokinetic data are available for patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C).
  • Drug interactions:
  • In vitro drug interactions:
  • In vitro studies in human liver microsomes have shown that colchicine is not an inhibitor or inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.
  • In vivo drug interactions:
  • The effects of co-administration of other drugs with COLCRYS on Cmax, AUC, and Cmin are summarized in Table 6 (effect of other drugs on colchicine) and Table 7 (effect of colchicine on other drugs). For information regarding clinical recommendations, see Table 1 in Dose Modification for Co-administration of Interacting Drugs.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Estrogen-containing oral contraceptives: In healthy female volunteers given ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum® 1/35) co-administered with COLCRYS (0.6 mg b.i.d. × 14 days), hormone concentrations are not affected.
  • In healthy volunteers given theophylline co-administered with COLCRYS (0.6 mg b.i.d. × 14 days), theophylline concentrations were not affected.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Carcinogenicity studies of colchicine have not been conducted. Due to the potential for colchicine to produce aneuploid cells (cells with an unequal number of chromosomes), there is theoretically an increased risk of malignancy.
  • Mutagenesis
  • Colchicine was negative for mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. In a chromosomal aberration assay in cultured human white blood cells, colchicine treatment resulted in the formation of micronuclei. Since published studies demonstrated that colchicine induces aneuploidy from the process of mitotic nondisjunction without structural DNA changes, colchicine is not considered clastogenic, although micronuclei are formed.
  • Impairment of Fertility
  • No studies of colchicine effects on fertility were conducted with COLCRYS. However, published nonclinical studies demonstrated that colchicine-induced disruption of microtubule formation affects meiosis and mitosis. Reproductive studies also reported abnormal sperm morphology and reduced sperm counts in males, and interference with sperm penetration, second meiotic division, and normal cleavage in females when exposed to colchicine. Colchicine administered to pregnant animals resulted in fetal death and teratogenicity. These effects were dose dependent, with the timing of exposure critical for the effects on embryofetal development. The nonclinical doses evaluated were generally higher than an equivalent human therapeutic dose, but safety margins for reproductive and developmental toxicity could not be determined.
  • Case reports and epidemiology studies in human male subjects on colchicine therapy indicated that infertility from colchicine is rare. A case report indicated that azoospermia was reversed when therapy was stopped. Case reports and epidemiology studies in female subjects on colchicine therapy have not established a clear relationship between colchicine use and female infertility. However, since the progression of FMF without treatment may result in infertility, the use of colchicine needs to be weighed against the potential risks.

Clinical Studies

  • The evidence for the efficacy of colchicine in patients with chronic gout is derived from the published literature. Two randomized clinical trials assessed the efficacy of colchicine 0.6 mg twice a day for the prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with gout initiating treatment with urate lowering therapy. In both trials, treatment with colchicine decreased the frequency of gout flares.
  • The efficacy of a low dosage regimen of oral colchicine (COLCRYS total dose 1.8 mg over 1 hour) for treatment of gout flares was assessed in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 1 week, dose comparison study. Patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for gout were randomly assigned to three groups: high-dose colchicine (1.2 mg, then 0.6 mg hourly × 6 hours [4.8 mg total]); low-dose colchicine (1.2 mg, then 0.6 mg in 1 hour [1.8 mg total] followed by 5 placebo doses hourly); or placebo (2 capsules, then 1 capsule hourly × 6 hours). Patients took the first dose within 12 hours of the onset of the flare and recorded pain intensity (11-point Likert scale) and adverse events over 72 hours. The efficacy of colchicine was measured based on response to treatment in the target joint, using patient self assessment of pain at 24 hours following the time of first dose as recorded in the diary. A responder was one who achieved at least a 50% reduction in pain score at the 24-hour post-dose assessment relative to the pre-treatment score and did not use rescue medication prior to the actual time of 24-hour post-dose assessment.
  • Rates of response were similar for the recommended low-dose treatment group (38%) and the non-recommended high-dose group (33%) but were higher as compared to the placebo group (16%) as shown in Table 8.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The evidence for the efficacy of colchicine in patients with FMF is derived from the published literature. Three randomized, placebo-controlled studies were identified. The three placebo-controlled studies randomized a total of 48 adult patients diagnosed with FMF and reported similar efficacy endpoints as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria.
  • One of the studies randomized 15 patients with FMF to a 6-month crossover study during which 5 patients discontinued due to study non-compliance. The 10 patients completing the study experienced 5 attacks over the course of 90 days while treated with colchicine compared to 59 attacks over the course of 90 days while treated with placebo. Similarly, the second study randomized 22 patients with FMF to a 4-month crossover study during which 9 patients discontinued due to lack of efficacy while receiving placebo or study non-compliance. The 13 patients completing the study experienced 18 attacks over the course of 60 days while treated with colchicine compared to 68 attacks over the course of 60 days while treated with placebo. The third study was discontinued after an interim analysis of 6 of the 11 patients enrolled had completed the study; results could not be confirmed.
  • Open-label experience with colchicine in adults and children with FMF is consistent with the randomized, controlled trial experience, and was utilized to support information on the safety profile of colchicine and for dosing recommendations.

How Supplied

  • COLCRYS® (colchicine, USP) tablets 0.6 mg, are purple, film-coated, capsule-shaped tablets, debossed with 'AR 374' on one side and scored on the other side.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
  • Protect from light.
  • DISPENSE IN TIGHT, LIGHT-RESISTANT CONTAINER.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Colchicine Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Patient Counseling Information

Dosing Instructions
  • Patients should be advised to take COLCRYS as prescribed, even if they are feeling better. Patients should not alter the dose or discontinue treatment without consulting with their doctor. If a dose of COLCRYS is missed:
  • For treatment of a gout flare when the patient is not being dosed for prophylaxis, take the missed dose as soon as possible.
  • For treatment of a gout flare during prophylaxis, take the missed dose immediately, wait twelve hours, then resume the previous dosing schedule.
  • For prophylaxis without treatment for a gout flare, or FMF, take the dose as soon as possible and then return to the normal dosing schedule. However, if a dose is skipped the patient should not double the next dose.
Fatal Overdose
  • Instruct patient that fatal overdoses, both accidental and intentional, have been reported in adults and children who have ingested colchicine. COLCRYS should be kept out of the reach of children.
Blood Dyscrasias
Drug and Food Interactions
  • Patients should be advised that many drugs or other substances may interact with COLCRYS and some interactions could be fatal. Therefore, patients should report to their healthcare provider all of the current medications they are taking, and check with their healthcare provider before starting any new medications, particularly antibiotics. Patients should also be advised to report the use of non-prescription medication or herbal products. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may also interact and should not be consumed during COLCRYS treatment.
Neuromuscular Toxicity
  • Patients should be informed that muscle pain or weakness, tingling or numbness in fingers or toes may occur with COLCRYS alone or when it is used with certain other drugs. Patients developing any of these signs or symptoms must discontinue COLCRYS and seek medical evaluation immediately.
Medication Guide
  • COLCRYS® is a registered U.S. trademark of the URL Pharma, Inc. group of companies. © 2009 AR Holding Company, Inc., a URL Pharma, Inc. company

U.S. Patent Nos. 7,601,758; 7,619,004 and other patents pending,

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Colchicine interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • colchicine® — Cortrosyn®[3]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Imazio M, Brucato A, Cemin R, Ferrua S, Belli R, Maestroni S; et al. (2011). "Colchicine for recurrent pericarditis (CORP): a randomized trial.". Ann Intern Med. 155 (7): 409–14. PMID 21873705. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-155-7-201110040-00359.  Review in: Ann Intern Med. 2012 Feb 21;156(4):JC2-04
  2. "COLCRYS (colchicine) tablet, film coated [AR Scientific Inc.]". 
  3. "http://www.ismp.org". 

Linked-in.jpg