Acute diarrhea classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sudarshana Datta, MD [2]

Overview

Diarrhea is defined as the passage of unformed or abnormally fluid stools at an increased frequency. Acute diarrhea has a duration of < 4 weeks and may be classified on the basis of etiology and presentation. On the basis of etiology, acute diarrhea may be classified into infectious and non-infectious sub-types. Based on the type of presentation, acute diarrhea may be classified into watery and inflammatory types. Watery diarrhea may be further classified into secretory and osmotic types of diarrhea.

Classification

Classification based on etiology

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acute diarrhea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infectious
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-Infectious
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bacterial
 
Viral
 
 
 
 
Fungal
 
Protozoa
 
 
 
 
 
Medications
 
 
Poisoning
 
 
Systemic illness
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shigella species ( S.dysentriae, S.flexneri, S.sonneii, S.boydii)

E.coli species (Enterotoxigenic E.coli, Enterohemorrhagic E.coli, Enteroinvasive E.coli, EPEC, EAEC)
Cryptosporidium parvum
Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus
Clostridium perfringens
•Non-Typhoidal Salmonella: S.typhimurium, S.enterica
Campylobacter jejuni
Clostridium difficle
Yersinia enterocolitica
Staphylococcus aureus (staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome [TSS]
Aeromonas
Plesiomonas shigelloides
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (Shiga toxin producing E. coli ETEC)
Mycobacterium Avium complex
Bacillus cereus

Listeria monocytogenes
 
Astro virus

Calcivirus
Noro virus
Rota virus
CMV
Norwalk virus
Influenza virus
Rubeola virus
Dengue virus

Human immunodeficiency virus
 
 
 
 
Cryptococcus
Candida albicans
 
Giardia lamblia

Microsporidia

Isospora
 
 
 
 
 
Digoxin

Cephalosporins
Thiazide diuretics
Triptans
Lactulose
Anti retroviral agents
Chemotherapeutic agents
Antifungals

Magnesium
 
 
Organophosphate Poisoning
Opium withdrawal
 
 
Hyperthyroidism

Irritable bowel syndrome
Lactose intolerance
Tumors: VIPoma
Short bowel syndrome

Radiation enteritis
 
 
 

Classification based on presentation

  • Based on the type of presentation, acute diarrhea may be classified into watery and inflammatory types. Watery diarrhea may further be classified into secretory and osmotic types of diarrhea.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acute diarrhea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Watery
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inflammatory
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

Cytomegalovirus
Herpes simplex virus
Strongyloidiasis
Aeromonas
Plesiomonas
Ischemic colitis

Radiation colitis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Secretory
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Osmotic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
•Cholera

•Enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli
•Factitious diarrhea from laxative abuse
Aeromonas
Plesiomonas
Microsporidia
Giardia
Coccidia

Cryptosporidium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lactase deficiency

Lactulose
Laxative abuse

Whipple's disease
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

References


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