Amlodipine

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Amlodipine
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Alonso Alvarado, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker, dihydropirydine calcium channel blocker that is FDA approved for the treatment of hypertension, coronary artery disease. Common adverse reactions include flushing, palpitations, peripheral edema, abdominal pain, nausea, dizziness, headache, somnolence, fatigue.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Hypertension
  • Dosing Information
  • The usual initial antihypertensive oral dose of amlodipine is 5 mg once daily with a maximum dose of 10 mg once daily.

Small, fragile, or elderly patients, or patients with hepatic insufficiency may be started on 2.5 mg once daily and this dose may be used when adding amlodipine to other antihypertensive therapy.

Adjust dosage according to each patient's need. In general, titration should proceed over 7 to 14 days so that the physician can fully assess the patient's response to each dose level. Titration may proceed more rapidly, however, if clinically warranted, provided the patient is assessed frequently.

Coronary Artery Disease
  • Dosing Information
  • The recommended dose for chronic stable or vasospastic angina is 5–10 mg, with the lower dose suggested in the elderly and in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Most patients will require 10 mg for adequate effect.

The recommended dose range for patients with coronary artery disease is 5–10 mg once daily. In clinical studies, the majority of patients required 10 mg

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Amlodipine in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Dosing Information
  • Monotherapy: 10 mg/daily.[1]
  • Combination therapy: amlodipine 5-15 mg/day + fosinopril 10-30 mg/day.[2]
Disorder related to transplantation
Nondiabetic Kidney Disease
  • Dosing Information
  • 5-10 mg/day.[3]
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • Dosing Information
  • Monotherapy: 5 mg/day, increase to 10 mg/day after first 14 days of treatment.
  • Combination therapy: Amlodipine 5 mg/day for 14 days, then amlodipine 5 mg/day + benazepril 10 mg/day.[4]
Raynaud's Phenomenon
  • Dosing Information
  • 10 mg PO q24h.[5]
Silent Myocardial Ischemia
  • Dosing Information
Systolic Hypertension
  • Dosing Information
  • 5 mg PO q24h.[9]

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Hypertension
  • Dosing Information
  • The effective antihypertensive oral dose in pediatric patients ages 6–17 years is 2.5 mg to 5 mg once daily. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Amlodipine in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Amlodipine in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Hypotension

Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.

Increased Angina or Myocardial Infarction

Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.

Beta-Blocker Withdrawal

Amlodipine is not a beta-blocker and therefore gives no protection against the dangers of abrupt beta-blocker withdrawal; any such withdrawal should be by gradual reduction of the dose of beta-blocker.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Amlodipine has been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. In general, treatment with amlodipine was well-tolerated at doses up to 10 mg daily. Most adverse reactions reported during therapy with amlodipine were of mild or moderate severity. In controlled clinical trials directly comparing amlodipine (N=1730) at doses up to 10 mg to placebo (N=1250), discontinuation of amlodipine due to adverse reactions was required in only about 1.5% of patients and was not significantly different from placebo (about 1%). The most common side effects are headache and edema. The incidence (%) of side effects that occurred in a dose related manner are as follows:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Other adverse experiences that were not clearly dose related but were reported with an incidence greater than 1.0% in placebo-controlled clinical trials include the following:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For several adverse experiences that appear to be drug and dose related, there was a greater incidence in women than men associated with amlodipine treatment as shown in the following table:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

The following events occurred in <1% but >0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials or under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain; they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship:

Amlodipine therapy has not been associated with clinically significant changes in routine laboratory tests. No clinically relevant changes were noted in serum potassium, serum glucose, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine.

In the CAMELOT and PREVENT studies, the adverse event profile was similar to that reported previously (see above), with the most common adverse event being peripheral edema.

Postmarketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following postmarketing event has been reported infrequently where a causal relationship is uncertain: gynecomastia. In postmarketing experience, jaundice and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis or hepatitis), in some cases severe enough to require hospitalization, have been reported in association with use of amlodipine.

Amlodipine has been used safely in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, well-compensated congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and abnormal lipid profiles.

Drug Interactions

In Vitro Data

In vitro data indicate that amlodipine has no effect on the human plasma protein binding of digoxin, phenytoin, warfarin, and indomethacin.

Cimetidine

Co-administration of amlodipine with cimetidine did not alter the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.

Grapefruit Juice

Co-administration of 240 mL of grapefruit juice with a single oral dose of amlodipine 10 mg in 20 healthy volunteers had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine.

Magnesium and Aluminum Hydroxide Antacid

Co-administration of a magnesium and aluminum hydroxide antacid with a single dose of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine .

Sildenafil

A single 100 mg dose of sildenafil in subjects with essential hypertension had no effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amlodipine. When amlodipine and sildenafil were used in combination, each agent independently exerted its own blood pressure lowering effect.

Atorvastatin

Co-administration of multiple 10 mg doses of amlodipine with 80 mg of atorvastatin resulted in no significant change in the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin.

Simvastatin

Co-administration of multiple doses of 10 mg of amlodipine with 80 mg simvastatin resulted in a 77% increase in exposure to simvastatin compared to simvastatin alone. Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily.

Digoxin

Co-administration of amlodipine with digoxin did not change serum digoxin levels or digoxin renal clearance in normal volunteers.

Ethanol (Alcohol)

Single and multiple 10 mg doses of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol.

Warfarin

Co-administration of amlodipine with warfarin did not change the warfarin prothrombin response time.

CYP3A4 Inhibitors

Co-administration of a 180 mg daily dose of diltiazem with 5 mg amlodipine in elderly hypertensive patients resulted in a 60% increase in amlodipine systemic exposure. Erythromycin co-administration in healthy volunteers did not significantly change amlodipine systemic exposure. However, strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir) may increase the plasma concentrations of amlodipine to a greater extent. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inhibitors.

CYP3A4 Inducers

No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A4 inducers on amlodipine. Blood pressure should be closely monitored when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inducers.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

None known.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Amlodipine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

No evidence of teratogenicity or other embryo/fetal toxicity was found when pregnant rats and rabbits were treated orally with amlodipine maleate at doses up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (respectively, 8 times8 and 23 times8 the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg on a mg/m2 basis) during their respective periods of major organogenesis. However, litter size was significantly decreased (by about 50%) and the number of intrauterine deaths was significantly increased (about 5-fold) in rats receiving amlodipine maleate at a dose equivalent to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day for 14 days before mating and throughout mating and gestation. Amlodipine maleate has been shown to prolong both the gestation period and the duration of labor in rats at this dose.

  • 8Based on patient weight of 50 kg.


Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Amlodipine in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Amlodipine during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether amlodipine is excreted in human milk. In the absence of this information, it is recommended that nursing be discontinued while amlodipine is administered.

Pediatric Use

Effect of amlodipine on blood pressure in patients less than 6 years of age is not known.

Geriatic Use

Clinical studies of amlodipine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Elderly patients have decreased clearance of amlodipine with a resulting increase of AUC of approximately 40–60%, and a lower initial dose may be required

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Amlodipine with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Amlodipine with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Amlodipine in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

Because amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t 1/2) is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function, titrate slowly when administering amlodipine to patients with severe hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Amlodipine in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Amlodipine in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Amlodipine Monitoring in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding the compatibility of Amlodipine and IV administrations.

Overdosage

Overdosage might be expected to cause excessive peripheral vasodilation with marked hypotension and possibly a reflex tachycardia. In humans, experience with intentional overdosage of amlodipine is limited.

Single oral doses of amlodipine maleate equivalent to 40 mg amlodipine/kg and 100 mg amlodipine/kg in mice and rats, respectively, caused deaths. Single oral amlodipine maleate doses equivalent to 4 or more mg amlodipine/kg or higher in dogs (11 or more times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis) caused a marked peripheral vasodilation and hypotension.

If massive overdose should occur, initiate active cardiac and respiratory monitoring. Frequent blood pressure measurements are essential. Should hypotension occur, provide cardiovascular support including elevation of the extremities and the judicious administration of fluids. If hypotension remains unresponsive to these conservative measures, consider administration of vasopressors (such as phenylephrine) with attention to circulating volume and urine output. As amlodipine is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not likely to be of benefit.

Pharmacology

Norvasc4.png
1 : 1 mixture (racemate)Amlodipine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
Identifiers
CAS number 88150-42-9
ATC code C08CA01
PubChem 2162
DrugBank DB00381
Chemical data
Formula C20H25ClN2O5 
Mol. mass 408.879 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 64 to 90%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 30 to 50 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

C(AU) C(US)

Legal status

POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes Oral (tablets)

Mechanism of Action

Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (calcium ion antagonist or slow-channel blocker) that inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Experimental data suggest that amlodipine binds to both dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites. The contractile processes of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle are dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium ions into these cells through specific ion channels. Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes selectively, with a greater effect on vascular smooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells. Negative inotropic effects can be detected in vitro but such effects have not been seen in intact animals at therapeutic doses. Serum calcium concentration is not affected by amlodipine. Within the physiologic pH range, amlodipine is an ionized compound (pKa=8.6), and its kinetic interaction with the calcium channel receptor is characterized by a gradual rate of association and dissociation with the receptor binding site, resulting in a gradual onset of effect.

Amlodipine is a peripheral arterial vasodilator that acts directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and reduction in blood pressure.

The precise mechanisms by which amlodipine relieves angina have not been fully delineated, but are thought to include the following:

Exertional Angina

In patients with exertional angina, amlodipine reduces the total peripheral resistance (afterload) against which the heart works and reduces the rate pressure product, and thus myocardial oxygen demand, at any given level of exercise.

Vasospastic Angina

Amlodipine has been demonstrated to block constriction and restore blood flow in coronary arteries and arterioles in response to calcium, potassium epinephrine, serotonin, and thromboxane A2 analog in experimental animal models and in human coronary vessels in vitro. This inhibition of coronary spasm is responsible for the effectiveness of amlodipine in vasospastic (Prinzmetal's or variant) angina.

Structure

NORVASC is the besylate salt of amlodipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker.

Amlodipine besylate is chemically described as 3-Ethyl-5-methyl (±)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, monobenzenesulphonate. Its empirical formula is C20H25CIN2O5•C6H6O3S, and its structural formula is:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Amlodipine besylate is a white crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 567.1. It is slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol. Amlodipine tablets are formulated as white tablets equivalent to 2.5, 5, and 10 mg of amlodipine for oral administration. In addition to the active ingredient, amlodipine besylate, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous, sodium starch glycolate, and magnesium stearate.

Pharmacodynamics

Following administration of therapeutic doses to patients with hypertension, amlodipine produces vasodilation resulting in a reduction of supine and standing blood pressures. These decreases in blood pressure are not accompanied by a significant change in heart rate or plasma catecholamine levels with chronic dosing. Although the acute intravenous administration of amlodipine decreases arterial blood pressure and increases heart rate in hemodynamic studies of patients with chronic stable angina, chronic oral administration of amlodipine in clinical trials did not lead to clinically significant changes in heart rate or blood pressures in normotensive patients with angina.

With chronic once daily oral administration, antihypertensive effectiveness is maintained for at least 24 hours. Plasma concentrations correlate with effect in both young and elderly patients. The magnitude of reduction in blood pressure with amlodipine is also correlated with the height of pretreatment elevation; thus, individuals with moderate hypertension (diastolic pressure 105–114 mmHg) had about a 50% greater response than patients with mild hypertension (diastolic pressure 90–104 mmHg). Normotensive subjects experienced no clinically significant change in blood pressures (+1/–2 mmHg).

In hypertensive patients with normal renal function, therapeutic doses of amlodipine resulted in a decrease in renal vascular resistance and an increase in glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow without change in filtration fraction or proteinuria.

As with other calcium channel blockers, hemodynamic measurements of cardiac function at rest and during exercise (or pacing) in patients with normal ventricular function treated with amlodipine have generally demonstrated a small increase in cardiac index without significant influence on dP/dt or on left ventricular end diastolic pressure or volume. In hemodynamic studies, amlodipine has not been associated with a negative inotropic effect when administered in the therapeutic dose range to intact animals and man, even when co-administered with beta-blockers to man. Similar findings, however, have been observed in normal or well-compensated patients with heart failure with agents possessing significant negative inotropic effects.

Electrophysiologic Effects

Amlodipine does not change sinoatrial nodal function or atrioventricular conduction in intact animals or man. In patients with chronicstable angina, intravenous administration of 10 mg did not significantly alter A-H and H-V conduction and sinus node recovery time after pacing. Similar results were obtained in patients receiving amlodipine and concomitant beta-blockers. In clinical studies in which amlodipine was administered in combination with beta-blockers to patients with either hypertension or angina, no adverse effects on electrocardiographic parameters were observed. In clinical trials with angina patients alone, amlodipine therapy did not alter electrocardiographic intervals or produce higher degrees of AV blocks.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration of therapeutic doses of amlodipine, absorption produces peak plasma concentrations between 6 and 12 hours. Absolute bioavailability has been estimated to be between 64 and 90%. The bioavailability of amlodipine is not altered by the presence of food.

Amlodipine is extensively (about 90%) converted to inactive metabolites via hepatic metabolism with 10% of the parent compound and 60% of the metabolites excreted in the urine. Ex vivo studies have shown that approximately 93% of the circulating drug is bound to plasma proteins in hypertensive patients. Elimination from the plasma is biphasic with a terminal elimination half-life of about 30–50 hours. Steady-state plasma levels of amlodipine are reached after 7 to 8 days of consecutive daily dosing.

The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine are not significantly influenced by renal impairment. Patients with renal failure may therefore receive the usual initial dose.

Elderly patients and patients with hepatic insufficiency have decreased clearance of amlodipine with a resulting increase in AUC of approximately 40–60%, and a lower initial dose may be required. A similar increase in AUC was observed in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Pediatric Patients

Sixty-two hypertensive patients aged 6 to 17 years received doses of amlodipine between 1.25 mg and 20 mg. Weight-adjusted clearance and volume of distribution were similar to values in adults.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Rats and mice treated with amlodipine maleate in the diet for up to two years, at concentrations calculated to provide daily dosage levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 amlodipine mg/kg/day, showed no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of the drug. For the mouse, the highest dose was, on a mg/m2 basis, similar to the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg amlodipine/day.10 For the rat, the highest dose was, on a mg/m2 basis, about twice the maximum recommended human dose.10

Mutagenicity studies conducted with amlodipine maleate revealed no drug related effects at either the gene or chromosome level.

There was no effect on the fertility of rats treated orally with amlodipine maleate (males for 64 days and females for 14 days prior to mating) at doses up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (8 times the maximum recommended human dose10 of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis).

  • 10Based on patient weight of 50 kg

Clinical Studies

Effects in Hypertension
Adult Patients

The antihypertensive efficacy of amlodipine has been demonstrated in a total of 15 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies involving 800 patients on amlodipine and 538 on placebo. Once daily administration produced statistically significant placebo-corrected reductions in supine and standing blood pressures at 24 hours postdose, averaging about 12/6 mmHg in the standing position and 13/7 mmHg in the supine position in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Maintenance of the blood pressure effect over the 24-hour dosing interval was observed, with little difference in peak and trough effect. Tolerance was not demonstrated in patients studied for up to 1 year. The 3 parallel, fixed dose, dose response studies showed that the reduction in supine and standing blood pressures was dose-related within the recommended dosing range. Effects on diastolic pressure were similar in young and older patients. The effect on systolic pressure was greater in older patients, perhaps because of greater baseline systolic pressure. Effects were similar in black patients and in white patients.

Pediatric Patients

Two hundred sixty-eight hypertensive patients aged 6 to 17 years were randomized first to amlodipine 2.5 or 5 mg once daily for 4 weeks and then randomized again to the same dose or to placebo for another 4 weeks. Patients receiving 2.5 mg or 5 mg at the end of 8 weeks had significantly lower systolic blood pressure than those secondarily randomized to placebo. The magnitude of the treatment effect is difficult to interpret, but it is probably less than 5 mmHg systolic on the 5 mg dose and 3.3 mmHg systolic on the 2.5 mg dose. Adverse events were similar to those seen in adults.

Effects in Chronic Stable Angina

The effectiveness of 5–10 mg/day of amlodipine in exercise-induced angina has been evaluated in 8 placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials of up to 6 weeks duration involving 1038 patients (684 amlodipine, 354 placebo) with chronic stable angina. In 5 of the 8 studies, significant increases in exercise time (bicycle or treadmill) were seen with the 10 mg dose. Increases in symptom-limited exercise time averaged 12.8% (63 sec) for amlodipine 10 mg, and averaged 7.9% (38 sec) for amlodipine 5 mg. amlodipine 10 mg also increased time to 1 mm ST segment deviation in several studies and decreased angina attack rate. The sustained efficacy of amlodipine in angina patients has been demonstrated over long-term dosing. In patients with angina, there were no clinically significant reductions in blood pressures (4/1 mmHg) or changes in heart rate (+0.3 bpm).

Effects in Vasospastic Angina

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 4 weeks duration in 50 patients, amlodipine therapy decreased attacks by approximately 4/week compared with a placebo decrease of approximately 1/week (p<0.01). Two of 23 amlodipine and 7 of 27 placebo patients discontinued from the study due to lack of clinical improvement.

Effects in Documented Coronary Artery Disease

In PREVENT, 825 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease were randomized to amlodipine (5–10 mg once daily) or placebo and followed for 3 years. Although the study did not show significance on the primary objective of change in coronary luminal diameter as assessed by quantitative coronary angiography, the data suggested a favorable outcome with respect to fewer hospitalizations for angina and revascularization procedures in patients with CAD.

CAMELOT enrolled 1318 patients with CAD recently documented by angiography, without left main coronary disease and without heart failure or an ejection fraction <40%. Patients (76% males, 89% Caucasian, 93% enrolled at US sites, 89% with a history of angina, 52% without PCI, 4% with PCI and no stent, and 44% with a stent) were randomized to double-blind treatment with either amlodipine (5–10 mg once daily) or placebo in addition to standard care that included aspirin (89%), statins (83%), beta-blockers (74%), nitroglycerin (50%),-coagulants (40%), and diuretics (32%), but excluded other calcium channel blockers. The mean duration of follow-up was 19 months. The primary endpoint was the time to first occurrence of one of the following events: hospitalization for angina pectoris, coronary revascularization, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke/TIA, or peripheral vascular disease. A total of 110 (16.6%) and 151 (23.1%) first events occurred in the amlodipine and placebo groups, respectively, for a hazard ratio of 0.691 (95% CI: 0.540–0.884, p = 0.003). The primary endpoint is summarized in Figure 1 below. The outcome of this study was largely derived from the prevention of hospitalizations for angina and the prevention of revascularization procedures (see the table below). Effects in various subgroups are shown in Figure 2. In an angiographic substudy (n=274) conducted within CAMELOT, there was no significant difference between amlodipine and placebo on the change of atheroma volume in the coronary artery as assessed by intravascular ultrasound.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

The table below summarizes the significant composite endpoint and clinical outcomes from the composites of the primary endpoint. The other components of the primary endpoint including cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke/TIA, or peripheral vascular disease did not demonstrate a significant difference between amlodipine and placebo.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Studies in Patients with Heart Failure

amlodipine has been compared to placebo in four 8–12 week studies of patients with NYHA Class II/III heart failure, involving a total of 697 patients. In these studies, there was no evidence of worsened heart failure based on measures of exercise tolerance, NYHA classification, symptoms, or left ventricular ejection fraction. In a long-term (follow-up at least 6 months, mean 13.8 months) placebo-controlled mortality/morbidity study of amlodipine 5–10 mg in 1153 patients with NYHA Classes III (n=931) or IV (n=222) heart failure on stable doses of diuretics, digoxin, and ACE inhibitors, amlodipine had no effect on the primary endpoint of the study which was the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and cardiac morbidity (as defined by life-threatening arrhythmia, acute myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for worsened heart failure), or on NYHA classification, or symptoms of heart failure. Total combined all-cause mortality and cardiac morbidity events were 222/571 (39%) for patients on amlodipine and 246/583 (42%) for patients on placebo; the cardiac morbid events represented about 25% of the endpoints in the study.

Another study (PRAISE-2) randomized patients with NYHA Class III (80%) or IV (20%) heart failure without clinical symptoms or objective evidence of underlying ischemic disease, on stable doses of ACE inhibitors (99%), digitalis (99%), and diuretics (99%), to placebo (n=827) or amlodipine (n=827) and followed them for a mean of 33 months. There was no statistically significant difference between amlodipine and placebo in the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality (95% confidence limits from 8% reduction to 29% increase on amlodipine). With amlodipine there were more reports of pulmonary edema.

How Supplied

  • NORVASC – 2.5 mg Tablets (amlodipine besylate equivalent to 2.5 mg of amlodipine per tablet) are supplied as white, diamond, flat-faced, beveled edged engraved with "NORVASC" on one side and "2.5" on the other side and supplied as follows:
  • Bottle of 90 (NDC 0069-1520-68)

NORVASC – 5 mg Tablets (amlodipine besylate equivalent to 5 mg of amlodipine per tablet) are white, elongated octagon, flat-faced, beveled edged engraved with both "NORVASC" and "5" on one side and plain on the other side and supplied as follows:

  • Bottle of 90 (NDC 0069-1530-68)
  • Unit Dose package of 100 (NDC 0069-1530-41)
  • Bottle of 300 (NDC 0069-1530-72)
  • NORVASC – 10 mg Tablets (amlodipine besylate equivalent to 10 mg of amlodipine per tablet) are white, round, flat-faced, beveled edged engraved with both "NORVASC" and "10" on one side and plain on the other side and supplied as follows:
  • Bottle of 90 (NDC 0069-1540-68)
  • Unit Dose package of 100 (NDC 0069-1540-41)

Storage

Store bottles at controlled room temperature, 59° to 86°F (15° to 30°C) and dispense in tight, light-resistant containers (USP).

Images

Drug Images

Amlodipine Besylate NDC 00930083.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 93;83
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:00930083

Drug Label Author: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 00937167.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 93;7167
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:00937167

Drug Label Author: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 00937168.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 93;7168
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:00937168

Drug Label Author: Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 03785208.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: M;A8
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:03785208

Drug Label Author: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 03785209.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: M;A9
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:03785209

Drug Label Author: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 03785210.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: M;A10
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:03785210

Drug Label Author: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 06032108.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 2108;V
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:06032108

Drug Label Author: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 06032109.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 2109;V
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:06032109

Drug Label Author: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 06032110.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 2110;V
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:06032110

Drug Label Author: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 09046188.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: IP;6
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:09046188

Drug Label Author: Major Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 317220237.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 237;IG
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:317220237

Drug Label Author: Camber Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 317220238.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 238;IG
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:317220238

Drug Label Author: Camber Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 317220239.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 239;IG
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:317220239

Drug Label Author: Camber Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 605050194.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: APO;AML;5
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:605050194

Drug Label Author: Apotex Corp.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 605050195.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: APO;AML;10
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:605050195

Drug Label Author: Apotex Corp.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 651620006.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: IP;6
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:651620006

Drug Label Author: Amneal Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 651620008.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: IP;8
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:651620008

Drug Label Author: Amneal Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate NDC 683820123.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: Z;5
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:683820123

Drug Label Author: Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 05913762.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: AB;6
Dosage: 40 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:05913762

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812271.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;571
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812271

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812271.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;571
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812271

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812272.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;572
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): Brown
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812272

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812272.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;572
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): Brown
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812272

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812273.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;573
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): Pink
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812273

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812273.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;573
Dosage: 20 mg
Color(s): Pink
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812273

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812274.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;574
Dosage: 20 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812274

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 07812274.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: S;SANDOZ;574
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:07812274

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 551110339.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: RDY;339
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): Grey, Yellow
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:551110339

Drug Label Author: Dr.Reddy's Laboratories Limited

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 551110339.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: RDY;339
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): Grey, Yellow
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:551110339

Drug Label Author: Dr.Reddy's Laboratories Limited

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 551110340.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: RDY;340
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): Grey, Orange
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:551110340

Drug Label Author: Dr.Reddy's Laboratories Limited

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride NDC 551110340.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE], BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE[BENAZEPRILAT]
Imprint: RDY;340
Dosage: 20 mg
Color(s): Grey, Orange
Shape: Capsule
Size (mm): 19
Score: 1
NDC:551110340

Drug Label Author: Dr.Reddy's Laboratories Limited

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine besylate NDC 762820238.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: 238;IG
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:762820238

Drug Label Author: Exelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine besylate NDC 08320043.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine
Ingredient(s): amlodipine besylate[amlodipine]
Imprint: ALP;5;832
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:08320043

Drug Label Author: Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine besylate NDC 08320044.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine
Ingredient(s): amlodipine besylate[amlodipine]
Imprint: ALP;10;832
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:08320044

Drug Label Author: Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine besylate NDC 597621520.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: G;1520;2;5
Dosage: 2.5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Clover
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:597621520

Drug Label Author: Greenstone LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine besylate NDC 597621530.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: G;1530;5
Dosage: 5 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Octagon
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:597621530

Drug Label Author: Greenstone LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Amlodipine besylate NDC 597621540.jpg

Drug Name: Amlodipine
Ingredient(s): AMLODIPINE BESYLATE[AMLODIPINE]
Imprint: G;1540;10
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:597621540

Drug Label Author: Greenstone LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Norvasc8.jpg
Noravsc9.jpg

Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Amlodipine Patient Counseling Information in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

Single and multiple 10 mg doses of amlodipine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol.

Brand Names

  • Norvasc

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • Amlodipineine - Amiloride
  • Norvasc - Navane

Drug Shortage Status

Drug Shortage

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Seccia, T.M.; Vulpis, V.; Ricci, S.; Pirrelli, A. (1995). "Antihypertensive and Metabolic Effects of Amlodipine in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus". Clinical Drug Investigation. 9 (1): 16–21. doi:10.2165/00044011-199509010-00004. ISSN 1173-2563.
  2. Fogari R, Preti P, Zoppi A, Rinaldi A, Corradi L, Pasotti C; et al. (2002). "Effects of amlodipine fosinopril combination on microalbuminuria in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients". Am J Hypertens. 15 (12): 1042–9. PMID 12460699.
  3. Esnault VL, Brown EA, Apetrei E, Bagon J, Calvo C, DeChatel R; et al. (2008). "The effects of amlodipine and enalapril on renal function in adults with hypertension and nondiabetic nephropathies: a 3-year, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study". Clin Ther. 30 (3): 482–98. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.03.006. PMID 18405787.
  4. Neutel JM, Smith DH, Weber MA (2004). "Effect of antihypertensive monotherapy and combination therapy on arterial distensibility and left ventricular mass". Am J Hypertens. 17 (1): 37–42. PMID 14700510.
  5. La Civita L, Pitaro N, Rossi M, Gambini I, Giuggioli D, Cini G; et al. (1993). "Amlodipine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon". Br J Rheumatol. 32 (6): 524–5. PMID 8508292.
  6. Deanfield JE, Detry JM, Lichtlen PR, Magnani B, Sellier P, Thaulow E (1994). "Amlodipine reduces transient myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease: double-blind Circadian Anti-Ischemia Program in Europe (CAPE Trial)". J Am Coll Cardiol. 24 (6): 1460–7. PMID 7930276.
  7. Madjlessi-Simon T, Fillette F, Mary-Krause M, Lechat P, Jaillon P (1995). "Effects of amlodipine on transient myocardial ischaemia in patients with a severe coronary condition treated with a beta-blocker. Amlor-Holter Study Investigators". Eur Heart J. 16 (12): 1780–8. PMID 8682007.
  8. Bech J, Madsen JK, Kelbaek H (1999). "Amlodipine reduces myocardial ischaemia during exercise without compromising left ventricular function in patients with silent ischaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study". Eur J Heart Fail. 1 (4): 395–400. PMID 10937953.
  9. Malacco E, Varì N, Capuano V, Spagnuolo V, Borgnino C, Palatini P; et al. (2003). "A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group comparison of valsartan and amlodipine in the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in elderly patients: the Val-Syst study". Clin Ther. 25 (11): 2765–80. PMID 14693303.

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