Acute diarrhea physical examination

Jump to: navigation, search

Acute Diarrhea Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Acute Diarrhea from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Guidelines for Management

Case Studies

Case #1

Acute diarrhea physical examination On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Acute diarrhea physical examination

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Acute diarrhea physical examination

CDC on Acute diarrhea physical examination

Acute diarrhea physical examination in the news

Blogs on Acute diarrhea physical examination

Directions to Hospitals Treating Psoriasis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Acute diarrhea physical examination

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2]

Overview

Patients with acute diarrhea usually appear ill, dehydrated or lethargic. Common physical examination findings of acute diarrhea include hypotension and other signs of volume depletion (depressed consciousness, sunken anterior fontanelle, dry mucous membranes, sunken eyes, poor skin turgor and delayed capillary refill), abdominal tenderness and distension, increased peristaltic activity (borborygmi).

Physical Examination

Physical examination of patients with acute diarrhea shows signs of dehydration (dry mouth and tongue, sunken eyes, sunken anterior fontanelle, poor skin turgor, hypotension, altered consciousness, absent tears), abdominal tenderness and distension, increased peristaltic activity, perineal erythema and signs of malnutrition.

Appearance of the patient

  • Patients with acute diarrhea may appear ill, dehydrated, or lethargic depending upon the severity of diarrhea.

Vital signs

Assessment of dehydration:[1][2]

Mild dehydration (<5%) Moderate dehydration (5-10%) Severe dehydration
Eyes Normal Sunken Very sunken
Tears Present Absent Absent
Thirst Normal Thirsty Poor
Mouth Moist Dry Very dry
Urine output Normal Decreased Oliguric
Fontanelle Normal Sunken Sunken
Respirations Normal Tachypnea Tachypnea
Mental status Normal Irritable Altered
Blood pressure Normal Hypotension Hypotension

Skin

  • Skin examination of patients with diarrhea can be done by pinch test.
  • If the skin on the thigh, calf, or forearm is pinched, it will immediately return to its normal flat state when the pinch is released in normal patients.
    • Mild dehydration (0-5%): Pinch retracts immediately
    • Moderate dehydration (5-10%): Pinch retracts slowly
    • Severe dehydration (>10%): Pinch remain folded
  • Delayed capillary refill

Heart

Abdomen

Perineal erythema

Failure to thrive and malnutrition

Lungs

HEENT

Neuromuscular


References

  1. Vega RM, Bhimji SS. PMID 28613793. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Nemeth V, Pfleghaar N. PMID 28846339. Missing or empty |title= (help)

Linked-in.jpg