|IUPAC name||Potassium iodide|
|Other names|| Kalium iodide,|
|Molar mass||166.00 g/mol|
|Appearance||white crystalline solid|
|Density||3.13 g/cm3, solid|
681 °C (954 K)
1330 °C (1603 K)
|Solubility in water||128 g/100 ml (6 °C)|
|Main hazards||Slightly hazardous|
|R-phrases||, , -,|
|S-phrases||, -, ,|
|Other anions|| potassium bromide|
|Other cations|| lithium iodide|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
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Potassium iodide is a white crystalline salt with chemical formula, used in photography and radiation treatment. It finds widespread application as an iodide source because it is less hygroscopic than sodium iodide, making it easier to work with. KI can turn yellow upon heating in air or upon standing in moist air for long periods, because of oxidation of the iodide to iodine.
Even air will oxidize iodide as evidenced by the observation of a purple extract when KI is rinsed with dichloromethane. Under acidic conditions, KI is oxidised even more easily, due to the formation of hydroiodic acid (HI), which is a powerful reducing agent.
Unlike I2, I3− salts can be highly water-soluble. I2 and I3− have virtually identical redox potentials (0.535 and 0.536 V vs NHE, respectively), i.e. they are both mild oxidants relative to H2. Therefore, this reaction allows the iodine to be used in aqueous solutions for redox titrations.
Potassium iodide also serves in some organic reactions as a source of iodide ion (see "uses" below).
It occurs as odourless, colourless, transparent or somewhat opaque crystals or white granular powder. It is slightly hygroscopic, the taste is saline and slightly bitter. On long exposure to air, it becomes yellow due to the liberation of iodine and small quantities of iodate may be formed.
Saturated solution of potassium iodide is also used as treatment for sporotrichosis, a fungal infection.
In medical use, it can also serve as an antiseptic for people suffering from sore throat. The dose is 0.5 g-1.0 g in 100 mL, with the accompany of iodine (0.5 g-1.0 g in 100 mL).
KI is also used as a fluorescence quenching agent in biomedical research because of collisional quenching by its iodide ion.
In aqueous solution with elemental iodine, it acts as a gold etchant and will attack and dissolve gold surfaces.
Potassium iodide was also FDA approved in 1982 to protect the thyroid from radioactive iodine. In the event of an accident or attack at a nuclear power plant, or fallout from a nuclear bomb, several volatile fission product radionuclides may be released. 131I is a common fission by-product and is particularly dangerous as the body concentrates it only in the thyroid gland which may lead to thyroid cancer. By saturating the body with a source of stable iodine prior to exposure, any radioactive 131I inhaled or ingested becomes the excess in the blood system and is excreted through the kidneys. Potassium iodide cannot protect against any other causes of radiation poisoning, however, nor can it provide any degree of protection against a dirty bomb unless the bomb happens to contain a significant amount of radioactive iodine. In case of a nuclear emergency, iodine used for the cleaning of wounds should not be ingested, as it is poisonous. Only 3 brands of potassium iodide have been tested and approved for use by the FDA as a thyroid blocking agent during exposure to radioactive iodine (Iosat, ThyroShield and Thyro-safe) and hence potassium iodate is not approved in the U.S. for this purpose.
|Age||KI in mg|
|Over 12 years old||130|
|3 - 12 years old||65|
|1 - 36 months old||32|
|< 1 month old||16|
See fission products and the external links for more details.
Mild irritant, wear gloves. Chronic overexposure can have adverse effects on the thyroid.
- ↑ N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1984
- ↑ Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990
- ↑ The Merck Index, 7th edition, Merck & Co., Rahway, New Jersey, 1960
- ↑ H. Nechamkin, The Chemistry of the Elements, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968
- ↑ L. G. Wade, Organic Chemistry, 5th ed., pp. 871-2, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RIver, New Jersey, 2003
- ↑ J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., pp. 670-1, Wiley, New York, 1992
- ↑ Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents, World Health Organization, Update 1999
|Methanol / Ethylene glycol||Ethanol - Fomepizole|
|Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)||Acetylcysteine - Glutathione - Methionine|
|Arsenic||Dimercaprol - Succimer|
|Cyanide||4-Dimethylaminophenol - Amyl nitrite - Hydroxocobalamin - Sodium nitrite - Sodium thiosulfate|
|Nerve agent / Organophosphate pesticide||Atropine - Biperiden - Diazepam - Oximes (Pralidoxime, Obidoxime) - see also Cholinesterase|
|Opioid||Diprenorphine - Nalorphine - Naloxone - Naltrexone - Nalmefene|
|Toxic metals (Cadmium, Mercury, Lead etc)||Edetates - Dimercaprol|
|Other||Ipecacuanha - Prednisolone/promethazine - Methylthioninium chloride - Potassium permanganate - Physostigmine - Copper sulfate - Potassium iodide - Digoxin Immune Fab - Prussian blue|
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