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Alphabetical Index of all Pages in the Cardiology Textbook

ANATOMY

Cardiovascular Anatomy

Arteries | Coronary arteries | Head and Neck | Upper Limbs | Torso-Chest | Torso-Abdomen | Lower Limbs | All

Veins | Head and Neck | Upper Extremity | Torso | Lower Extremity

Atria | Atria | Left atrium | Right atrium | Interatrial septum | Musculi pectinati

Ventricles | Ventricles | Left ventricle | Right ventricle | Interventricular septum | Trabeculae carneae | Chordae tendinae | Papillary muscle

Valves | Valves | Aortic valve | Mitral valve | Pulmonic valve | Tricuspid valve | Cusps

Regions | Base | Apex

Grooves | Coronary/atrioventricular | Interatrial | Anterior interventricular | Posterior interventricular

Surfaces | Sternocostal | Diaphragmatic

Borders | Right | Left

Right heart | Vena cavae | Coronary sinus | Right atrium | Right auricle | Fossa ovalis | Limbus of fossa ovalis | Crista terminalis | Valve of the inferior vena cava | Valve of the coronary sinus | Tricuspid valve | Right ventricle | Conus arteriosus | Moderator band/septomarginal trabecula | Pulmonary valve | Pulmonary artery | Pulmonary circulation

Left heart | Pulmonary veins | Left atrium | Left Auricle | Mitral valve | Left ventricle | Aortic valve | Aortic sinus | Aorta | Systemic circulation

Pericardium | Pericardium | Fibrous pericardium | Serous pericardium | Pericardial cavity | Epicardium/visceral layer | Pericardial sinus

Myocardium | Myocardium | Endocardium | Cardiac skeleton | Fibrous trigone | Fibrous rings

Conduction system | Conduction system | Cardiac pacemaker | SA node | AV node | Bundle of His | Purkinje fibers

PHYSIOLOGY

Cardiovascular Physiology

Volumes | Preload | Afterload | End-systolic volume | End-diastolic volume | Frank-Starling law of the heart | Cardiac output

Interactions | Wiggers diagram | Pressure volume diagram

Tropism | Chronotropy | Dromotropy | Inotropy

Hemodynamics | Hemodynamics | Baroreflexes | Kinin-kallikrein system | Renin-angiotensin system | Vasoconstrictors | Vasodilators | Compliance | Vascular resistance

Conduction | Electrical conduction system of the heart | Cardiac action potential

Cardiopulmonary | Respiratory physiology | Blood | Pulmonary circulation | Perfusion (Q) | Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction | Pulmonary shunt | Ventilation/perfusion scan | ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q) | Zones of the lung | Gas exchange | Pulmonary gas pressures | Alveolar gas equation | Hemoglobin | Oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve | 2,3-DPG | Bohr effect | Haldane effect | Carbonic anhydrase | Chloride shift | Oxyhemoglobin | Respiratory quotient | Arterial blood gas | Diffusion capacity | Dlco

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Cardiovascular Development

Arteries | Dorsal aorta | Aortic arches | Vitelline arteries | Ductus arteriosus | Umbilical artery

Veins | Cardinal veins | Ducts of Cuvier | Vitelline veins | Ductus venosus | Umbilical vein

Heart Development | Primitive heart tube | Truncus arteriosus | Bulbus cordis | Primitive ventricle | Primitive atrium | Sinus venosus | Septum primum | Ostium primum | Ostium secundum | Septum secundum | Foramen ovale | Endocardial cushions | Septum intermedium | Aorticopulmonary septum | Atrial canal

BASIC SCIENCE

Cardiovascular Biochemistry

Molecular Biology | Biochemistry | Organic Chemistry | Enzymes | Immunology

DIAGNOSTIC MODALITIES IN CARDIOLOGY

The Patient History in Cardiovascular Disease

Chest Pain | Claudication | Cough | Dyspnea | Orthopnea | Palpitations | Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea | Pedal Edema

The Physical Examination in Cardiovascular Disease

The Pulse | The Neck | The Heart | Lungs | The Extremities

The Electrocardiogram

Intervals | PR Interval | QRS Interval | QT Interval | T Wave | U Wave

Hypertrophy | Electrocardiographic Findings in LVH | Electrocardiographic Findings in Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH) | Biventricular Hypertrophy

Bundle Branch Block | LBBB | LAHB | RBBB | Trifascicular block

Atrial Arrhythmias | Premature Atrial Contractions (PACs) | Ectopic Atrial Rhythm | Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT) | Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT) with Block | Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT) | Atrial Flutter | Atrial Fibrillation

Ventricular Arrhythmias | Differential Diagnosis of Tachycardia with a Wide QRS Complex | Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm | Ventricular Parasystole | Premature Ventricular Contractions | Ventricular Tachycardia Including Torsades De Pointes and Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

Conduction Abnormalities | First Degree AV Block | Second Degree AV Block | Complete or Third-Degree AV Block | Concealed conduction | AV Junctional Rhythms | Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Different Disease States | The EKG in the Patient with an Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) | EKG Changes of Hypothermia | EKG Abnormalities in CNS Disease | The EKG of Cardiac Transplantation | The EKG in a Patient with a Pacemaker | Electrocardiography of Traumatic Heart Disease

Drug Effects on the EKG | Digitalis | Quinidine | Procainamide | Disopyramide | Lidocaine | Tocainide and Mexiletine | Phenytoin | Encainide, Flecainide and Propafenone | β-blockers | Amiodarone | Bretylium | Ca Channel Blockers | Adenosine | Phenothiazines | Tricyclic Antidepressants | Lithium

EKG in Electrolyte Disturbances | The EKG in Hyperkalemia | The EKG in Hypokalemia | The EKG in Hypercalcemia | The EKG in Hypocalcemia | Nonspecific ST-Segment and T-Wave Changes

Exercise Stress Testing

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Cardiac Biomarkers

Creatine Kinase | Cytokines and their receptors | Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) | Metalloproteinases (MMPs) | Natriuretic peptides‎ | Prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) | Prothrombin time (PT) | Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) | Thrombus precursor protein (TpP) | Von Willebrand factor (vWF) | White blood cell (WBC) count

An Overview of Cardiac Imaging

The Chest X Ray in Cardiovascular Disease

Echocardiography

Nuclear Cardiology

Coronary Angiography

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR)

CT Angiography

Positron Emission Tomography


CARDIAC DISEASE STATES

The Genetic Basis of Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Click on Show on the right to expand:

Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy

Cardiac Diseases in AIDS

Diseases of the Pericardium

Trauma and the Heart

Commotio cordis

Diseases of the Valvular Structures

Aortic Stenosis | Aortic Regurgitation | Mitral Stenosis | Mitral Regurgitation | Mitral Valve Prolapse | Pulmonic Regurgitation | Pulmonic Stenosis | Tricuspid Valve Prolapse | Tricuspid Regurgitation | Tricuspid Stenosis | Infective Endocarditis

Diseases of the Myocardium

Cardiomegaly | Cardiomyopathy | Congestive Heart Failure | Left Ventricular Hypertrophy | Myocarditis

Cardiac Arrhythmias


VASCULAR MEDICINE

Vascular Medicine

Diseases of the Aorta

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Sytemic Arterial Hypertension

Hypotension

Primary Cardiac Tumors

The Heart in Oncologic Disease

Endocrine Disease and the Heart

Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism | Hypoparathyroidism | Acromegaly

Renal Disease and the Heart

Infectious Disease and the Heart

AIDS | Chagas'

Autoimmune/Rheumatologic Disease and the Heart

Ankylosing Spondylitis | Antiphospholipid Syndrome | Behçet | Chagas | Crohn | Essential Mixed Cryoglobulinemia | Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis | Kawasaki | Lupus | Mixed Connective Tissue Disorder | Polyarteritis Nodosa | Polychondritis | Polymyositis & Dermatomyositis | Psoriasis | Rheumatoid Arthritis | Scleroderma | Sarcoidosis | Takayasu | Temporal Arteritis | Ulcerative Colitis | Wegener's Granulomatosis | Wilson

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary Hypertension

Cor Pulmonale

Pre-Operative Clearance


HEMOCARDIOLOGY

The Role of the Coagulation System in Heart Disease


CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

Atherosclerosis Prevention and Risk Factor Modification

Chronic Stable Angina

Introduction | Definition | Historical Perspective | Epidemiology | Pathophysiology | Presentation | Recognition of Clinical Subsets | Risk Factors | Diagnosis | Differential Diagnosis of Chest Pain | Treatment | Prognosis | Rehabilitation | Prevention

Unstable Angina

Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Overview | Epidemiology and Demographics | Pathophysiology of Reperfusion | Risk Factors | Pathophysiology | Triggers | Classification

Diagnosis | Symptoms | Physical Examination | Electrocardiogram | Cardiac Markers | Coronary Angiography | Histopathology

Treatment | Pre-Hospital Care | Initial Care | Thrombolytic Therapy | Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention | Rescue Percutaneous Coronary Intervention | Facilitated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention | Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery | Barriers to Implementing Clinical Guidelines

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Arrhythmia Monitoring | Secondary Prevention | Complications | Prognosis | ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction | Cardiac Rehabilitation

The Living Guidelines


PHARMACOTHERAPY

Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy

Adrenergic Agonists

Adrenergic Agonists Overview

Direct Acting | Dobutamine | Dopamine | Epinephrine | Formoterol | Isoproterenol | Metaproterenol | Methoxamine | Norepinephrine | Phenylephrine | Salmeterol | Tamsulosin | Terbutaline

Indirect Acting | Amphetamine | Tyramine

Mixed Action | Ephedrine


Angiotensin-Renin Inhibitors (C09)

ACE Inhibitor Overview | Benazepril | Captopril | Enalapril | Fosinopril | Lisinopril | Perindopril | Quinapril | Ramipril | Spirapril | Trandolapril

Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Overview | Candesartan | Eprosartan | Irbesartan | Losartan | Olmesartan | Tasosartan | Telmisartan | Valsartan

Renin Inhibitors Overview | Aliskiren | Remikiren


Antiarrhythmic agents

Antiarrhythmic Agents Overview (C01B)

Class Ia | Ajmaline | Disopyramide | Prajmaline | Procainamide | Quinidine | Sparteine

Class Ib | Aprindine | Lidocaine | Mexiletine | Tocainide

Class Ic | Encainide | Flecainide | Lorcainide | Moricizine | Propafenone

Class II | Propranolol | Metoprolol | Nadolol | Atenolol | Acebutolol | Pindolol see Beta blockers (C07)

Class III | Amiodarone | Bretylium tosylate | Bunaftine | Dofetilide | Ibutilide | Sotalol

Class IV | Verapamil | Diltiazem see Calcium channel blockers (C08)

Class V | Adenosine | Atropine | Digoxin


Anticoagulants

Anticoagulants Overview

Vitamin K Antagonists Overview | Acenocoumarol | Clorindione | Coumatetralyl | Dicumarol (Dicoumarol) | Diphenadione | Ethyl biscoumacetate | Phenprocoumon | Phenindione | Tioclomarol | Warfarin


Antihypertensives and Diuretics

Antihypertensive Overview (C02) and Diuretic Overview (C03)

Sympatholytic Agents Overview (including Alpha Blockers Overview)

Centrally Acting Antiadrenergics Overview | Clonidine | Guanfacine | Methyldopa | Moxonidine | Rescinnamine | Reserpine | Rilmenidine
Ganglionic Blocker Overview / Nicotinic Antagonist Overview | Mecamylamine | Trimethaphan
Peripherally acting/Antiadrenergics | Prazosin | Guanethidine | Indoramin | Doxazosin

Vasodilators Overview | Diazoxide | Hydralazine | Minoxidil | Nitroprusside | Phentolamine

Other antihypertensives

Serotonin Antagonist Overview |Ketanserin
Endothelin Receptor Antagonist Overview | Bosentan | Ambrisentan | Sitaxsentan

Low ceiling diuretics

Thiazide Overview | Bendroflumethiazide | Chlorothiazide | Hydrochlorothiazide
Non-thiazides | Chlortalidone | Indapamide | Quinethazone | Mersalyl | Metolazone | Theobromine | Cicletanine

High ceiling diuretics

Loop Diuretic Overview | Bumetanide | Furosemide | Torasemide)
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Overview
Epithelial Sodium Channel Overview |Amiloride | Triamterene)
Aldosterone Antagonist Overview |Spironolactone | Eplerenone | Potassium canrenoate | Canrenone

Antiplatelet Agents

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Overview | Abciximab | Eptifibatide | Tirofiban

ADP Receptor Antagonists | Clopidogrel | Ticlopidine | Prasugrel

Prostaglandin Analogues Overview | Beraprost | Prostacyclin | Iloprost | Treprostinil

Other Antiplatelet Agents Acetylsalicylic acid/Aspirin | Aloxiprin | Ditazole | Carbasalate calcium | Cloricromen | Dipyridamole | Indobufen | Picotamide | Triflusal


Antithrombins

Direct Thrombin Inhibitors Overview | Argatroban | Bivalirudin | Dabigatran | Desirudin | Hirudin | Lepirudin | Melagatran | Ximelagatran

Indirect Thrombin Inhibitors

Heparins | Danaparoid | Heparin | Sulodexide
Low Molecular Weight Heparins | Bemiparin | Dalteparin | Enoxaparin | Nadroparin | Parnaparin | Reviparin | Tinzaparin

Other Antithrombotics | Defibrotide | Dermatan sulfate | Fondaparinux | Rivaroxaban

Non-Medicinal Antithrombins Overview | Citrate | EDTA | Oxalate


Beta Blockers

Beta Blockers Overview (C07)

Non-selective β antagonists | Metipranolol | Nadolol | Oxprenolol | Penbutolol | Pindolol | Propranolol | Timolol | Sotalol

β1 antagonists (cardioselective) | Atenolol | Acebutolol | Betaxolol | Bisoprolol | Esmolol | Metoprolol | Nebivolol

Mixed α1/β antagonists | Carvedilol | Labetalol


Calcium Channel Blockers

Calcium Channel Blocker Overview

Class I Phenylalkylamines (C08DA) | Verapamil

Class II Dihydropyridines (C08CA) | Amlodipine | Felodipine | Isradipine | Lacidipine | Lercanidipine | Nicardipine | Nifedipine | Nimodipine | Nisoldipine

Class III Benzothiazepines (C08DB) | Diltiazem


Cardiac Glycosides

Cardiac Glycoside Overview (C01A)

Digitalis Glycosides Overview | Acetyldigitoxin | Acetyldigoxin | Digitalis leaves | Digitoxin | Digoxin | Lanatoside C | Deslanoside | Metildigoxin | Gitoformate

Scilla Glycosides Overview | Proscillaridin

Strophantus Glycosides Overview | G-strophanthin | Cymarin

Other Cardiac Glycosides | Peruvoside


Cardiac Stimulants Excluding Cardiac Glycosides

Cardiac stimulants excluding cardiac glycosides (C01C)

Adrenergic Overview and Dopaminergic Overview agents | Etilefrine | Isoprenaline | Norepinephrine | Dopamine | Norfenefrine | Phenylephrine | Dobutamine | Oxedrine | Metaraminol | Methoxamine | Mephentermine | Dimetofrine | Prenalterol | Dopexamine | Gepefrine | Ibopamine | Midodrine | Octopamine | Fenoldopam | Cafedrine | Arbutamine | Theodrenaline | Epinephrine

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Overview (PDE3I) | Amrinone | Milrinone | Enoximone | Bucladesine

Other cardiac stimulants | Angiotensinamide | Xamoterol | Levosimendan


Fibrinolytics

Alteplase | Reteplase | Tenecteplase | Streptokinase, Urokinase | Saruplase | Anistreplase


Hypolipidemic Agents

Statins Overview | Atorvastatin | Cerivastatin | Fluvastatin | Lovastatin | Mevastatin | Pitavastatin | Pravastatin | Rosuvastatin | Simvastatin

Fibrates Overview | Clofibrate | Bezafibrate | Aluminium clofibrate | Gemfibrozil | Fenofibrate | Simfibrate | Ronifibrate | Ciprofibrate | Etofibrate | Clofibride

Bile Acid Sequestrant Overview | Colestyramine | Colestipol | Colextran | Colesevelam

Niacin and Derivatives | Niceritrol | Niacin | Nicofuranose | Aluminium nicotinate | Nicotinyl alcohol | Acipimox

Other | Dextrothyroxine | Probucol | Tiadenol | Benfluorex | Meglutol | Omega-3-triglycerides | Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate | Policosanol | Ezetimibe


Nitrates

Nitrates Overview | Glyceryl trinitrate | Isosorbide dinitrate | Isosorbide mononitrate | Molsidomine | Pentaerythritol tetranitrate


Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

Medications used in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension Overview (B01, C02)

Prostacyclin Overview | Beraprost | Epoprostenol | Iloprost | Treprostinil

Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Overview | Ambrisentan | Bosentan | Sitaxsentan

PDE5 Inhibitors Overview | Sildenafil | Tadalafil | Vardenafil

Adjunctive therapy | Calcium channel blockers | Diuretics | Digoxin | Oxygen therapy | Warfarin


Vasodilators

Vasodilators Overview (C01D)

Quinolone Vasodilators Overview | Flosequinan

Other Vasodilators | Heptaminol | Molsidomine | Nicorandil | Nesiritide



INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY

Interventional Cardiology

Diagnostic Catheterization | Risk Stratification and the Benefits of PCI vs Medical Therapy | Conscious Sedation | Preparation of the Patient for Diagnostic Catheterization | Technical Aspects of the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory | Obtaining Venous and Arterial Access | Equipment Used in Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterizaiton | Hemodynamic Assessment in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory | Radiation Safety

Assesement of coronary lesions | Coronary Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)) | Coronary flow reserve(CFR) | Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)

PCI | Preparation of the Patient for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) | Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): Basic Principles and Guidelines | Equipment Used in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention | Pharmacotherapy to Support PCI | Antiplatelet therapy | Antithrombotic therapy | Angiography and PCI in Special Patient Populations | Management Of Specific Lesion Types | High Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) | Vascular Closure Devices | Post PCI Medical Management of the Interventional Patient | Complications During and Following Cardiac Catheterization and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention | Coronary stent thrombosis

PCI in Specific Populations and Lesion Types

High Risk PCI | PCI in the Patient in Cardiogenic Shock | PCI in the Patient Requiring CPR and Refractory Ventricular Arrhythmias | PCI in the Patient with Severely Depressed Ventricular Function | PCI in the Patient with Critical Valve Stenosis | PCI in the Sole Remaining Conduit | PCI in the Unprotected Left Main Patient | Adjuncts for High Risk Percuatenous Coronary Intervention

Mechanical circulatory support | Mechanical circulatory support | Intra-aortic balloon pump | Ventricular assist devices

Artificial heart

Other TopicsNon Coronary Interventions in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory | Transfusion in ACS management | Revascularization in the "No Option" Patient

Cardiac Surgery

Vascular Surgery

BIOSTATISTICS

Biostatistics


COST EFFECTIVENESS AND QUALITY OF LIFE

Cost Effectiveness in Cardiovascular Disease


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