Fever causes

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Overview

Measurement of Body Temperature in Fever

Variations in Body Temperature

Pathophysiology

Classification

Fever of unknown origin

Causes

Usefulness of Fever

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Causes

Common Causes

Fever is a common symptom of many medical conditions:

Persistent fever which cannot be explained after repeated routine clinical inquiries, is called fever of unknown origin.

Causes of Fever by Organ System

Cardiovascular

Vasculitis, Infective Endocarditis, Dressler's syndrome, Cholesterol Emboli Syndrome,


Chemical / poisoning

2,4-Dinitrophenol, Abrin, Cadmium poisoning, Colchicine, Lithraea molleoides,


Dermatologic

Weber-Christian disease, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Scrofula, Necrotizing fasciitis, Furunculosis, Cellulitis, Carbuncle,

Drug Side Effect

Abacavir , Abatacept , Acetaminophen, Acetazolamide , Acetohexamide , Acyclovir , Agalsidase beta, Adalimumab , Albendazole, Albuterol , Aldesleukin , Alefacept , Alemtuzumab, Alendronate , Alfuzosin , Alglucerase , Allopurinol, Altretamine , Aminopterin, Amitriptyline , Amobarbital, Amphotericin B, Anagrelide , Anakinra , Anastrozole , Ancrod, Anisindione , Aprepitant, Aripiprazole , Asparaginase , Atazanavir , Atorvastatin , Atovaquone , Atropine Ophthalmic , Auranofin , Aztreonam, Benazepril , Benztropine Mesylate , Bepridil , Bevacizumab , Bisphosphonate, Bleomycin, Bortezomib , Brinzolamide Ophthalmic , Bumetanide , Busulfan , Butabarbital , Butoconazole Vaginal Cream , Calcitriol , Candesartan , Capecitabine , Captopril , Carboplatin , Carisoprodol , Carmustine , Carteolol , Caspofungin, Cefaclor, Ceftazidime, Cephalosporin, Cetuximab , Chlorambucil , Chlordiazepoxide , Chlorothiazide , Chlorthalidone , Ciclosporin, Cidofovir , Cladribine , Clobazam, Clofarabine, Clonazepam , Clorazepate , Clotrimazole , Clozapine Cocaine, Colchicine, Colistimethate , Co-trimoxazole , Cyanocobalamin , Cyclobenzaprine , Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine , Dacarbazine , Dactinomycin , Dalteparin Sodium , Dapsone, Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir , Daunorubicin , Decitabine, Deferasirox , Delavirdine , Desipramine , Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine , Dextromethorphan, Diazepam , Diclofenac, Diethylpropion , Diflunisal , Diltiazem , Disopyramide , Dobutamine , Dolasetron , Donepezil , Dornase Alfa, Doxorubicin , Eculizumab, Efalizumab , Efavirenz , Emtricitabine , Enalapril , Enfuvirtide, Enoxaparin , Entacapone , Epinastine Ophthalmic , Epoetin Alfa , Eribulin, Erlotinib , Estazolam , Estradiol Topical , Etanercept , Ethosuximide , Etidronate , Etodolac , Etoposide, Ezetimibe , Famciclovir, Fenoprofen , Fipexide, Filgrastim , Flavoxate , Floxuridine , Flucytosine, Fludarabine Phosphate , Fluorouracil , Fluphenazine , Fluticasone and Salmeterol Inhalation , Fluvastatin , Fluvoxamine, Fosamprenavir , Foscarnet Sodium , Fosinopril , Furosemide , Gabapentin , Gatifloxacin , Gefitinib , Gemcitabine Hydrochloride , Glatiramer acetate, Glipizide , Glyburide , Goserelin , Granisetron , Grifulvin V, Guanethidine , Haloperidol, Heparin , Histrelin , Hydralazine , Hydrochlorothiazide , Ibandronate , Idarubicin , Ifosfamide , Imatinib , Imiglucerase , Imiquimod , Immune Globulin Intravenous , Indomethacin , Interferon gamma, Ipratropium and Albuterol Inhalation , Interferon Beta- 1A, Irinotecan hydrochloride, Isocarboxazid , Itraconazole , Lamivudine , Lenalidomide, Levalbuterol Inhalation , Levetiracetam , Levomepromazine, Linezolid, Liothyronine , Lisinopril , Lorazepam , Lovastatin , Loxapine , Mechlorethamine , Meclofenamate , Mefenamic acid, Melphalan , Meprobamate , Mercaptopurine,Meropenem, Methadone withdrawl, Methimazole , Methocarbamol , Methsuximide , Methyclothiazide , Methyldopa and Hydrochlorothiazide , Methylphenidate, Metolazone , Metoprolol, Metronidazole, Miconazole , Mifepristone, Minocycline, Mitomycin , Modafinil , Moexipril , Moricizine , Moxifloxacin ophthalmic , Nabumetone , Nafcillin Sodium , Nalmefene, Natalizumab , Nefazodone , Nilutamide , Nitrofurantoin , Nortriptyline , Olanzapine , Omalizumab, Ondansetron , Oprelvekin, Oseltamivir , Oxacillin Sodium , Oxaliplatin , Oxamniquine, Oxaprozin, Oxazepam , Oxcarbazepine , Paclitaxel, Palifermin , Paliperidone , Pamidronate , Panitumumab, Pantoprazole, Pegaspargase , Pegylated interferon alfa-2a, Pemetrexed , Penicillamine, Pentetic acid, Pentostatin , Perindopril , Phenazopyridine , Phenobarbital , Phenytoin , Pimecrolimus topical , Pimozide , Pindolol , Piroxicam , Plicamycin , Posaconazole , Pralatrexate,

Pravastatin , Prazepam , Praziquantel, Prazosin and polythiazide , Pregabalin , Primaquine , Primidone , Probenecid, Procainamide, Procarbazine , Prochlorperazine , Procyclidine , Potassium iodide, Propafenone , Propiomazine, Propylthiouracil , Protriptyline , permethrin, Pyrazinamide, Quetiapine , Quinapril , Ramipril , Ranitidine bismuth citrate , Rasagiline , Rasburicase, Ribavirin , Rifampicin, Riluzole , Risedronate , Risperidone , Rituximab , Rosuvastatin , Salsalate , Saquinavir , Sargramostim , Scopolamine, Secobarbital , Sibutramine, Silver sulfadiazine , Simvastatin , Sipuleucel-T, Sirolimus , Sodium oxybate , Solanine, Sorafenib, Spironolactone , Stool softeners , Streptomycin, Streptozocin , Strontium-89 chloride , Sulfadiazine , Sulfasalazine , Sulfinpyrazone , Sulfisoxazole , Sulindac , Sunitinib , Tamoxifen , Tamsulosin , Tanapox, Temazepam , Temozolomide , Teniposide , Terbinafine , Teriparatide (rDNA origin) , Testosterone Transdermal , Thiabendazole, Thioamide, Thioguanine , Thiotepa , Thyroid Medication , Ticarcillin Disodium , Ticlopidine , Tiludronate , Tiotropium Inhalation , Tipranavir , Tirofiban, Tocainide , Tolazamide , Tolbutamide , Topiramate, Topotecan Hydrochloride , Trandolapril , Tranylcypromine , Trastuzumab , Trazodone , Tretinoin, Triamterene, Triazolam , Trichothecene, Trihexyphenidyl , Trimethadione , Trimetrexate Glucuronate , Trimipramine , Troleandomycin , Valacyclovir , Valproate semisodium, Valproic Acid , Verapamil , Vinblastine , Vinorelbine Tartrate , Voriconazole, Vorinostat , Zalcitabine , Zanamivir, Zidovudine, Ziprasidone , Zoledronate, Zonisamide ,


Ear Nose Throat

Sinusitis, Pharyngoconjunctival fever, Pharyngitis, Peritonsillar abscess, Otitis media, Orbital cellulitis, Mastoiditis, Ludwig's angina, Laryngitis, Gradenigo's syndrome, Dacryocystitis, Croup, Bezold's abscess,

Endocrine

Subacute thyroiditis, Exopthalmos, Diabetes insipidus, De Quervain's thyroiditis, Adrenal hemorrhage,

Environmental

Zinc oxide, Silicosis, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Metal fume fever,

Gastroenterologic

Ulcerative colitis, Toxic megacolon, Pseudomembranous colitis/C.difficile, Peritonitis, Perianal abscess, Pancreatitis, Ischemic colitis, Intra-abdominal abscess, Ileitis, Hepato-biliary diseases, Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal perforation, Diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, Colitis, Cholangitis, Cholecystitis, Caroli's Disease, Caecitis, Appendicitis, Anal abscess,

Genetic

Muckle-Wells syndrome, Sickle-cell disease, Krabbe disease, Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever, Fabry's Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Familial Mediterranian Fever, Blue diaper syndrome,

Hematologic

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, Blood Transfusion, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia,

Iatrogenic

Transfusion reaction, Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease, Serotonin syndrome, Malignant hyperthermia, Adjustable gastric band,

Infectious Disease

Adenoviridae, African Hemmorhagic Fever, African horse sickness, African swine fever virus, African Trypanosomiasis, Alkhurma virus, Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Alphavirus, Anthrax, Aphthovirus, Arbovirus, Arenavirus, Aripiprazole , Arterivirus, Aspergillosis, Astroviridae, Babanki virus, Bacillary angiomatosis, Bartonellosis, BK virus, Blackwater fever, Blastomycosis, Bordetella pertussis, Bornholm disease, Borrelia, Boutonneuse fever, Brucellosis, Bubonic plague, Buruli ulcer, Bwamba Fever, Cabin fever, Campylobacter jejuni, Cat scratch fever, Chagas disease, Chickenpox, Chlamydia, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Clostridium Difficile, CMV , Coccidioidomycosis, Colorado tick fever virus, Cotton fever, Coxiella burnetii infection, Coxsackie A virus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyclosporiasis, Dengue Fever, Dientamoebiasis, Diphtheria, Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Echovirus, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Epstein-Barr virus, Fasciolosis, Fasciolopsiasis, Filoviridae, Flavivirus, Fusarium, Giardiasis, Gonorrhea, Group A streptococcal infection, Haemophilus influenzae, Haverhill fever, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Herpangina, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis E, Herpes zoster, Herpesviridae, HIV/AIDS, Hookworm, Infectious mononucleosis, Influenza virus , Interferon gamma, Lassa Fever, Legionellosis, Leishmaniasis, Leptospirosis, Lemierre's Syndrome, Listeriosis, Lyme disease, Malaria, Measles, Melioidosis, Miliary tuberculosis, Mumps, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Naegleria infection, Nocardiosis, Noma (disease), Norovirus infection, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, O'nyong'nyong virus, Opisthorchis infection, Oropouche virus, Paracoccidioidomycosis, Paragonimus Infection, Paratyphoid fever, Penicilliosis, Pityriasis rosea, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Poliomyelitis, Pontiac fever, Pralatrexate, Psittacosis, Q fever, Rat-bite fever, Rhinovirus, Rheumatic fever, Rickettsial infections, Rift Valley fever virus, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Roseola, Ross River Fever, Rotavirus, Rubella, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi infection/ Typhoid fever, Scarlet fever, Schistosomiasis, Septic arthritis, Shigellosis, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Sindbis virus, Sleeping sickness, Smallpox, Marburg hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, Staphylococcal enteritis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Swine flu, Syphillis, TORCH infections, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Toxocara infection, Traveler's diarrhea, Trench Fever, Trichinosis, Tularemia, Varicella-zoster virus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Visceral leishmaniasis, West Nile Virus, Whipple's disease, Yellow Fever Virus, Yersinia enterocolitica Infection (Yersiniosis), Yersinia Pestis Infection, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Zika fever,


Musculoskeletal / Ortho

Septic arthritis, Reactive Polyarticular Arthritis,


Neurologic

Subdural hygroma, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Meningitis, La Crosse encephalitis, Krabbe disease, Craniopharyngioma, Brain Abscess, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis,

Nutritional / Metabolic

Blue diaper syndrome, Gout, Porphyria

Obstetric/Gynecologic

Pelvic inflammatory disease, Childbirth,

Oncologic

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Pel-Ebstein fever, Synovial sarcoma, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Myxoma, Mesothelioma, Lung cancer, Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML), Kaposi's sarcoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Craniopharyngioma, Chronic myelogenous leukemia,


Opthalmologic

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, Temporal arteritis, Cogan syndrome, Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy,

Overdose / Toxicity

Vitamin A, Coley's Toxins, Didanosine , Ethchlorvynol, Ganciclovir , Melarsoprol, Methotrexate , Mycophenolate , Nevirapine , Oxybutynin , Oxycodone and aspirin , Peginterferon alfa-2a , Phenelzine , Phentermine, Selegiline , Solifenacin , Valganciclovir ,

Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary

Tuberculosis, Tracheitis, Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, Pleurisy, Lung cancer, Lung abscess, Empyema, Community-acquired pneumonia, Bronchitis, Atelectasis, Alveolitis, Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Acute Chest Syndrome,

Renal / Electrolyte

Urinary tract infection, Pyelonephritis, Interstitial nephritis,

Rheum / Immune / Allergy

Wegener Granulomatosis, Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Takayasu's Arteritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Still's disease, Serum sickness, Sarcoidosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rabies vaccine , Polyarteritis nodosa, Lupoid hepatitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Kawasaki disease, Hay fever, Churg-Strauss Syndrome, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine ,


Sexual

Syphillis, Lymphogranuloma venereum,

Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic

Prostatitis,

Miscellaneous

Retinoic acid syndrome, POEMS syndrome, Omphalitis, Occult abscess, Neutropenia, Mastitis, Lymphocytopenia, Kikuchi disease, Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, Herxheimer reaction, Heroin withdrawl, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fat Embolism Syndrome, Cytokine release syndrome, Congenital syphilis, Cocaine, Adiposis dolorosa,

Causes of Fever in Alphabetical Order

[1] [2]


References

  1. Sailer, Christian, Wasner, Susanne. Differential Diagnosis Pocket. Hermosa Beach, CA: Borm Bruckmeir Publishing LLC, 2002:77 ISBN 1591032016
  2. Kahan, Scott, Smith, Ellen G. In A Page: Signs and Symptoms. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2004:68 ISBN 140510368X



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