Permethrin

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Permethrin
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kiran Singh, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Permethrin is a dermatological agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of scabies, pediculosis capitis. Common adverse reactions include pruritus, erythema, numbness, tingling, rash, headache, fever, dizziness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Indications

  • Permethrin 5% Cream is indicated for the treatment of scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei

Dosage

  • Thoroughly massage Permethrin 5% Cream into the skin from the head to the soles of the feet. Scabies rarely infests the scalp of adults, although the hairline, neck, temple, and forehead may be infested in infants and geriatric patients. Usually 30 grams is sufficient for an average adult. The cream should be removed by washing (shower or bath) after 8 to 14 hours. Infants should be treated on the scalp, temple, and forehead. ONE APPLICATION IS GENERALLY CURATIVE.
  • Patients may experience persistent pruritus after treatment. This is rarely a sign of treatment failure and is not an indication for retreatment. Demonstrable living mites after 14 days indicate that retreatment is necessary.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Permethrin in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Indications and Dosing

  • Pediculosis capitis: apply to damp hair that has just been shampooed with a non conditioning shampoo; saturate hair and scalp beginning behind the ears and at back of neck; leave on 10 minutes; rinse with warm water; remove nits with nit comb; repeat application if live lice present 7 days after initial treatment.
  • Scabies: apply a generous amount of cream from head to feet, leave on for 8 to 14 hours, wash with soap/water, repeat application if living mites present 14 days after initial treatment.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Indications

  • Permethrin 5% Cream is indicated for the treatment of scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei.

Dosing

  • Safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients 2 months or younger.
  • Thoroughly massage Permethrin 5% Cream into the skin from the head to the soles of the feet. Scabies rarely infests the scalp of adults, although the hairline, neck, temple, and forehead may be infested in infants patients. The cream should be removed by washing (shower or bath) after 8 to 14 hours. Infants should be treated on the scalp, temple, and forehead. ONE APPLICATION IS GENERALLY CURATIVE.
  • Patients may experience persistent pruritus after treatment. This is rarely a sign of treatment failure and is not an indication for retreatment. Demonstrable living mites after 14 days indicate that retreatment is necessary.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Permethrin in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Indications and Dosage

  • Safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients 2 months or younger.
  • Pediculosis capitis: apply to damp hair that has just been shampooed with a non conditioning shampoo; saturate hair and scalp beginning behind the ears and at back of neck; leave on 10 minutes; rinse with warm water; remove nits with nit comb; repeat application if live lice present 7 days after initial treatment.
  • Scabies: apply a generous amount of cream from head to feet, leave on for 8 to 14 hours, wash with soap/water, repeat application if living mites present 14 days after initial treatment.

Contraindications

  • Permethrin 5% Cream is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any of its components, to any synthetic pyrethroid or pyrethrin.

Warnings

There is limited information regarding Warnings of Permethrin in patients.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • In clinical trials, generally mild and transient burning and stinging followed application with permethrin 5% Cream in 10% of patients and was associated with the severity of infestation. Pruritus was reported in 7% of patients at various times post-application. Erythema, numbness, tingling, and rash were reported in 1 to 2% or less of patients.

Postmarketing Experience

  • Other adverse events reported since marketing Permethrin 5% Cream include: headache, fever, dizziness, abdominal pain, diarrhea and nausea and/or vomiting. Although extremely uncommon and not expected when used as directed , rare occurrences of seizure have been reported. None have been medically confirmed as associated with Permethrin™ treatment.

Drug Interactions

There is limited information regarding Drug Interactions of Permethrin in patients.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): There is no FDA guidance on usage of Permethrin in women who are pregnant.
Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Permethrin in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Permethrin during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin in women who are nursing.

Pediatric Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin in pediatric settings.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin in geriatric settings.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Permethrin in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Permethrin in patients who are immunocompromised.

Others

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Topical

  • Shake bottle well prior to use.
  • Do not use near eyes, inside the nose, mouth, or vagina; protect eyes with a washcloth or towel during application.
  • (Permethrin 1%) apply to damp hair that has just been shampooed with a nonconditioning shampoo; saturate hair and scalp beginning behind the ears and at back of neck; leave on 10 minutes; rinse with warm water; remove nits with nit comb;
  • Repeat application if live lice present 7 days after initial treatment.
  • (Permethrin 1%) do not rewash hair for 1 to 2 days after treatment.
  • (Permethrin 5% cream) apply a generous amount of cream from head to feet, leave on for 8 to 14 hours, wash with soap/water, repeat application if living mites present 14 days after initial treatment.

Monitoring

  • Presence of lice

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding the compatibility of Permethrin and IV administrations.

Overdosage

  • No instance of accidental ingestion of Permethrin™ (permethrin) 5% Cream has been reported. If ingested, gastric lavage and general supportive measures should be employed. Excessive topical use may result in increased irritation and erythema.

Pharmacology

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Mechanism of Action

  • It acts on the nerve cell membrane to disrupt the sodium channel current by which the polarization of the membrane is regulated. Delayed repolarization and paralysis of the pests are the consequences of this disturbance.
  • Permethrin is rapidly metabolized by ester hydrolysis to inactive metabolites which are excreted primarily in the urine. Although the amount of permethrin absorbed after a single application of the 5% cream has not been determined precisely, data from studies with 14C-labeled permethrin and absorption studies of the cream applied to patients with moderate to severe scabies indicate it is 2% or less of the amount applied.

Structure

  • Permethrin™ (permethrin) 5% Cream is a topical scabicidal agent for the treatment of infestation with Sarcoptesscabiei (scabies). It is available in an off-white, vanishing cream base. Permethrin™ (permethrin) 5% Cream is for topical use only.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.


Chemical Name - The permethrin used is an approximate 1:3 mixture of the cis and trans isomers of the pyrethroid 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl ester. Permethrin has a molecular formula of C21H20Cl2O3 and a molecular weight of 391.29. It is a yellow to light orange-brown, low melting solid or viscous liquid.

Active Ingredient - Each gram contains permethrin 50 mg (5%).

Inactive Ingredients - Butylated hydroxytoluene, carbomer homopolymer type B, fractionated coconut oil, glycerin, glyceryl monostearate, isopropyl myristate, lanolin alcohols, mineral oil, polyoxyethylene cetyl ethers, purified water, and sodium hydroxide. Formaldehyde 1 mg (0.1%) is added as a preservative.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Permethrin Pharmacodynamics in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption Topical: 2% or less absorbed.

Excretion

Topical: Renal.

Nonclinical Toxicology

There is limited information regarding Permethrin Nonclinical Toxicology in the drug label.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Permethrin Clinical Studies in the drug label.

How Supplied

Permethrin™ 5% Cream is available as follows:

60 g tube (NDC 40076-115-60)

Storage

  • Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Permethrin ingredients and appearance.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Permethrin fig02.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Permethrin fig01.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Permethrin Patient Counseling Information in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Permethrin interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Permethrin™

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Permethrin Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Drug Shortage

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.


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