Pravastatin

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Pravastatin
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sheng Shi, M.D. [2]

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Overview

Pravastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that is FDA approved for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Common adverse reactions include rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, musculoskeletal pain, headache, cough, rhinitis and upper respiratory infection.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Hypercholesterolemia
  • Indication
  • Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate.

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

  • Indication
  • In hypercholesterolemic patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease (CHD), pravastatin sodium tablets USP are indicated to:
  • Reduce the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures.
  • Reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality with no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes.

General Dosing Information

  • The patient should be placed on a standard cholesterol-lowering diet before receiving pravastatin sodium tablets and should continue on this diet during treatment with pravastatin sodium tablets.
  • Recommended starting dosage: 40 mg PO qd.
  • If a daily dose of 40 mg does not achieve desired cholesterol levels, 80 mg once daily is recommended.
  • In patients with significant renal impairment,
  • Starting dosage: 10 mg PO qd. Pravastatin sodium tablets can be administered orally as a single dose at any time of the day, with or without food.
  • Since the maximal effect of a given dose is seen within 4 weeks, periodic lipid determinations should be performed at this time and dosage adjusted according to the patient’s response to therapy and established treatment guidelines.

Concomitant Lipid-Altering Therapy

Dosing information

  • Pravastatin sodium tablets may be used with bile acid resins. When administering a bile-acid-binding resin (e.g., cholestyramine, colestipol) and pravastatin, pravastatin sodium tablets should be given either 1 hour or more before or at least 4 hours following the resin.

Dosage in Patients Taking Cyclosporine

Dosing information

  • In patients taking immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine concomitantly with pravastatin, therapy should begin with 10 mg of pravastatin sodium once-a-day at bedtime and titration to higher doses should be done with caution.
  • Most patients treated with this combination received a maximum pravastatin sodium dose of 20 mg/day.
  • In patients taking cyclosporine: less than 20 mg PO qd.

Dosage in Patients Taking Clarithromycin

Dosing information

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Pravastatin in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Indications

  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Coronary artery bypass graft
  • Heart failure
  • Kidney disease
  • Radiographic contrast agent nephropathy
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Percutaneous coronary intervention
  • Restenotic lesion of coronary artery
  • Transient ischemic attack

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Hypercholesterolemia

Dosing information

  • Children (Ages 8 to 13 Years, Inclusive)
  • Recommended dose: 20 mg PO qd in children 8 to 13 years of age. Doses greater than 20 mg have not been studied in this patient population.
  • Adolescents (Ages 14 to 18 Years)
  • Recommended starting dose: 40 mg PO qd in adolescents 14 to 18 years of age. Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this patient population.
  • Children and adolescents treated with pravastatin should be reevaluated in adulthood and appropriate changes made to their cholesterol-lowering regimen to achieve adult goals for LDL-C.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Pravastatin in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

  • There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Pravastatin in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity

Liver

  • Active liver disease or unexplained, persistent elevations of serum transaminases.

Pregnancy

  • Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. cholesterol and other products of cholesterol biosynthesis are essential components for fetal development (including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes). Since statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, they are contraindicated during pregnancy and in nursing mothers. PRAVASTATIN SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED TO WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE ONLY WHEN SUCH PATIENTS ARE HIGHLY UNLIKELY TO CONCEIVE AND HAVE BEEN INFORMED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARDS. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this class of drug, therapy should be discontinued immediately and the patient apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

  • A small amount of pravastatin is excreted in human breast milk. Because statins have the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require pravastatin sodium treatment should not breast-feed their infants.

Warnings

Skeletal Muscle

  • Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with pravastatin and other drugs in this class. A history of renal impairment may be a risk factor for the development of rhabdomyolysis. Such patients merit closer monitoring for skeletal muscle effects.
  • Uncomplicated myalgia has also been reported in pravastatin-treated patients. Myopathy, defined as muscle aching or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values to greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), was rare (<0.1%) in pravastatin clinical trials. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Predisposing factors include advanced age (>65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment.
  • There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum CPK, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation and improvement with immunosuppressive agents.
  • All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing pravastatin sodium.
  • Pravastatin therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Pravastatin therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient experiencing an acute or serious condition predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, e.g., sepsis; hypotension; major surgery; trauma; severe metabolic, endocrine, or electrolyte disorders; or uncontrolled epilepsy.
  • The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent therapy with either erythromycin, cyclosporine, niacin, or fibrates. However, neither myopathy nor significant increases in CPK levels have been observed in 3 reports involving a total of 100 post-transplant patients (24 renal and 76 cardiac) treated for up to 2 years concurrently with pravastatin 10 to 40 mg and cyclosporine. Some of these patients also received other concomitant immunosuppressive therapies. Further, in clinical trials involving small numbers of patients who were treated concurrently with pravastatin and niacin, there were no reports of myopathy. Also, myopathy was not reported in a trial of combination pravastatin (40 mg/day) and gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day), although 4 of 75 patients on the combination showed marked CPK elevations versus 1 of 73 patients receiving placebo. There was a trend toward more frequent CPK elevations and patient withdrawals due to musculoskeletal symptoms in the group receiving combined treatment as compared with the groups receiving placebo, gemfibrozil, or pravastatin monotherapy. The use of fibrates alone may occasionally be associated with myopathy. The benefit of further alterations in lipid levels by the combined use of pravastatin sodiumwith fibrates should be carefully weighed against the potential risks of this combination.

Liver

  • Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. In placebo-controlled clinical trials subjects were exposed to pravastatin or placebo. In an analysis of serum transaminase values (ALT, AST), incidences of marked abnormalities were compared between the pravastatin and placebo treatment groups; a marked abnormality was defined as a post-treatment test value greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal for subjects with pretreatment values less than or equal to the upper limit of normal, or 4 times the pretreatment value for subjects with pretreatment values greater than the upper limit of normal but less than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal. Marked abnormalities of ALT or AST occurred with similar low frequency (≤1.2%) in both treatment groups. Overall, clinical trial experience showed that liver function test abnormalities observed during pravastatin therapy were usually asymptomatic, not associated with cholestasis, and did not appear to be related to treatment duration. In a 320-patient placebo-controlled clinical trial, subjects with chronic (>6 months) stable liver disease, due primarily to hepatitis C or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, were treated with 80 mg pravastatin or placebo for up to 9 months. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of subjects with at least one ALT ≥2 times the upper limit of normal for those with normal ALT (≤ the upper limit of normal) at baseline or a doubling of the baseline ALT for those with elevated ALT (> the upper limit of normal) at baseline. By Week 36, 12 out of 160 (7.5%) subjects treated with pravastatin met the prespecified safety ALT endpoint compared to 20 out of 160 (12.5%) subjects receiving placebo. Conclusions regarding liver safety are limited since the study was not large enough to establish similarity between groups (with 95% confidence) in the rates of ALT elevation.
  • It is recommended that liver function tests be performed prior to the initiation of therapy and when clinically indicated.
  • Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of pravastatin. Caution should be exercised when pravastatin is administered to patients who have a recent (<6 months) history of liver disease, have signs that may suggest liver disease (e.g., unexplained aminotransferase elevations, jaundice), or are heavy users of alcohol.
  • There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including pravastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with pravastatin sodium, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found do not restart pravastatin sodium.

Endocrine Function

  • Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and lower circulating cholesterol levels and, as such, might theoretically blunt adrenal or gonadal steroid hormone production. Results of clinical trials with pravastatin in males and post-menopausal females were inconsistent with regard to possible effects of the drug on basal steroid hormone levels. In a study of 21 males, the mean testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly reduced (p<0.004) after 16 weeks of treatment with 40 mg of pravastatin. However, the percentage of patients showing a ≥50% rise in plasma testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation did not change significantly after therapy in these patients. The effects of statins on spermatogenesis and fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, of pravastatin on the pituitary-gonadal axis in pre-menopausal females are unknown. Patients treated with pravastatin who display clinical evidence of endocrine dysfunction should be evaluated appropriately. Caution should also be exercised if a statin or other agent used to lower cholesterol levels is administered to patients also receiving other drugs (e.g., ketoconazole, spironolactone, cimetidine) that may diminish the levels or activity of steroid hormones.
  • In a placebo-controlled study of 214 pediatric patients with HeFH, of which 106 were treated with pravastatin (20 mg in the children aged 8 to 13 years and 40 mg in the adolescents aged 14 to 18 years) for 2 years, there were no detectable differences seen in any of the endocrine parameters (ACTH, cortisol, DHEAS, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol [girls] or testosterone [boys]) relative to placebo. There were no detectable differences seen in height and weight changes, testicular volume changes, or Tanner score relative to placebo

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Short-Term Controlled Trials

  • In the pravastatin sodium placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 1313 patients (age range 20 to 76 years, 32.4% women, 93.5% Caucasians, 5% Blacks, 0.9% Hispanics, 0.4% Asians, 0.2% Others) with a median treatment duration of 14 weeks, 3.3% of patients on pravastatin sodium and 1.2% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at an incidence greater than placebo were: liver function test increased, nausea, anxiety/depression, and dizziness.
  • All adverse clinical events (regardless of causality) reported in ≥2% of pravastatin-treated patients in placebo-controlled trials of up to 8 months duration are identified in Table 1:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The safety and tolerability of pravastatin sodium at a dose of 80 mg in 2 controlled trials with a mean exposure of 8.6 months was similar to that of pravastatin sodium at lower doses except that 4 out of 464 patients taking 80 mg of pravastatin had a single elevation of CK >10 times ULN compared to 0 out of 115 patients taking 40 mg of pravastatin.

Long-Term Controlled Morbidity and Mortality Trials

  • In the pravastatin sodium placebo-controlled clinical trials database of 21,483 patients (age range 24 to 75 years, 10.3% women, 52.3% Caucasians, 0.8% Blacks, 0.5% Hispanics, 0.1% Asians, 0.1% Others, 46.1% Not Recorded) with a median treatment duration of 261 weeks, 8.1% of patients on pravastatin sodium and 9.3% patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse events regardless of causality.
  • Adverse event data were pooled from several double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (e.g., West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study [WOS]; Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in the Coronary Arteries study [PLAC I]; Pravastatin, Lipids and Atherosclerosis in the Carotids study [PLAC II]; Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study [REGRESS]; and Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [KAPS]) involving a total of 10,764 patients treated with pravastatin 40 mg and 10,719 patients treated with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile in the pravastatin group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Patients were exposed to pravastatin for a mean of 4.0 to 5.1 years in, among other trials, WOS, and 1.9 to 2.9 years in PLAC I, PLAC II, KAPS, and REGRESS. In these long-term trials, the most common reasons for discontinuation were mild, non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. Collectively, these trials represent 47,613 patient-years of exposure to pravastatin. All clinical adverse events (regardless of causality) occurring in ≥2% of patients treated with pravastatin in these studies are identified in Table 2.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In addition to the events listed above in the long-term trials table, events of probable, possible, or uncertain relationship to study drug that occurred in < 2% of pravastatin-treated patients in the long-term trials included the following:

Laboratory Test Abnormalities

  • Increases in ALT, AST values and CPK have been observed.

Pediatric Patients

  • In a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 100 boys and 114 girls with HeFH (n=214; age range 8 to 18.5 years, 53% female, 95% Caucasians, <1% Blacks, 3% Asians, 1% Other), the safety and tolerability profile of pravastatin was generally similar to that of placebo.

Postmarketing Experience

  • In addition to the events reported above, as with other drugs in this class, the following events have been reported rarely during postmarketing experience with pravastatin sodium, regardless of causality assessment:
  • There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use .
  • Nervous System: dysfunction of certain cranial nerves (including alteration of taste, impairment of extraocular movement, facial paresis), peripheral nerve palsy.
  • Dermatologic: a variety of skin changes (e.g., nodules, discoloration, dryness of mucous membranes, changes to hair/nails).
  • Renal: urinary abnormality (including dysuria, frequency, nocturia).
  • Respiratory: dyspnea.
  • Reproductive: gynecomastia.
  • Laboratory Abnormalities: liver function test abnormalities, thyroid function abnormalities.

Drug Interactions

Cyclosporine

Clarithromycin

Colchicine

Gemfibrozil

  • Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are coadministered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of pravastatin sodium with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Other Fibrates

Niacin

  • The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when pravastatin is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in pravastatin sodium dosage should be considered in this setting.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): X

  • Safety in pregnant women has not been established. Available data in women inadvertently taking pravastatin while pregnant do not suggest any adverse clinical events. However, there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Therefore, it is not known whether pravastatin can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Pravastatin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus and patients have been informed of the potential hazards.
  • Rare reports of congenital anomalies have been received following intrauterine exposure to other statins. In a review2 of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or lovastatin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. The number of cases is adequate to exclude a ≥3- to 4-fold increase in congenital anomalies over the background incidence. In 89% of the prospectively followed pregnancies, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued at some point in the first trimester when pregnancy was identified. As safety in pregnant women has not been established and there is no apparent benefit to therapy with pravastatin sodium during pregnancy [see Contraindications (4.3)], treatment should be immediately discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized. Pravastatin sodium should be administered to women of childbearing potential only when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards.
  • Pravastatin was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic in rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg daily or in rabbits at doses of up to 50 mg/kg daily. These doses resulted in 10 times (rabbit) or 120 times (rat) the human exposure at 80 mg/day maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on surface area (mg/m2).
  • In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 4, 20, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day from gestation days 7 through 17 (organogenesis) increased mortality of offspring and skeletal anomalies were observed at 100 mg/kg/day systemic exposure, 10 times the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m2).
  • In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg/day from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21 (weaning) increased mortality of offspring and developmental delays were observed at 100 mg/kg/day systemic exposure, 12 times the human exposure at 80 mg/day MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m2).


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category
  • There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Pravastatin in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

  • There is no FDA guidance on use of Pravastatin during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • A small amount of pravastatin is excreted in human breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking pravastatin sodium should not nurse.
  • Pravastatin crosses the placenta and is found in fetal tissue at 30% maternal plasma levels following a single 20 mg/kg dose given to pregnant rats on gestation day 18. Similar studies in lactating rats indicate secretion of pravastatin into breast milk at 0.2 to 6.5 times higher levels than maternal plasma at exposures equivalent to 2 times human exposure at the MRHD.

Pediatric Use

  • The safety and effectiveness of pravastatin sodium in children and adolescents from 8 to 18 years of age have been evaluated in a placebo-controlled study of 2 years duration. Patients treated with pravastatin had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo with influenza and headache commonly reported in both treatment groups.Doses greater than 40 mg have not been studied in this population. Children and adolescent females of childbearing potential should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on pravastatin therapy.
  • Double-blind, placebo-controlled pravastatin studies in children less than 8 years of age have not been conducted.

Geriatic Use

  • The beneficial effect of pravastatin in elderly subjects in reducing cardiovascular events and in modifying lipid profiles was similar to that seen in younger subjects. The adverse event profile in the elderly was similar to that in the overall population. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses to pravastatin between elderly and younger patients.
  • Mean pravastatin AUCs are slightly (25% to 50%) higher in elderly subjects than in healthy young subjects, but mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax), and half-life (t½) values are similar in both age groups and substantial accumulation of pravastatin would not be expected in the elderly.
  • Since advanced age (≥65 years) is a predisposing factor for myopathy, pravastatin sodium should be prescribed with caution in the elderly.

Gender

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Pravastatin with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Pravastatin with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Pravastatin in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Pravastatin in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

  • There is no FDA guidance on the use of Pravastatin in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

  • There is no FDA guidance one the use of Pravastatin in patients who are immunocompromised.

Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

  • Pravastatin has not been evaluated in patients with rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In this group of patients, it has been reported that statins are less effective because the patients lack functional LDL receptors.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

  • FDA Package Insert for Pravastatin contains no information regarding drug monitoring.

IV Compatibility

  • There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Pravastatin in the drug label.

Overdosage

  • To date, there has been limited experience with overdosage of pravastatin. If an overdose occurs, it should be treated symptomatically with laboratory monitoring and supportive measures should be instituted as required.

Pharmacology

Pravastatin.png
Pravastatin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-((1R,2S,6S,8R,8aR)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-8-{[(2S)-2-methylbutanoyl]oxy}-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-heptanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 81093-37-0
ATC code C10AA03
PubChem 54687
DrugBank DB00175
Chemical data
Formula C23H36O7 
Mol. mass 424.528 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 18%[1]
Protein binding 50%[1]
Metabolism Hepatic (minimal; CYP3A4-mediated)[1]
Half life 1-3 hours[1]
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

D(AU) X(US)

Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) ?(CA) POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes oral

Mechanism of Action

  • Pravastatin is a reversible inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early and rate limiting step in the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol. In addition, pravastatin reduces VLDL and TG and increases HDL-C.

Structure

  • Pravastatin sodium tablets USP are one of a class of lipid-lowering compounds, the statins, which reduce cholesterol biosynthesis. These agents are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme catalyzing the early rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate.
  • Pravastatin sodium USP is designated chemically as 1-Naphthalene-heptanoic acid, 1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-β,δ,6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-, monosodium salt, [1S[1α(βS*,δS*),2α,6α,8β(R*),8aα]]-.

Structural formula:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

C23H35NaO7 MW 446.52

  • Pravastatin sodium USP is an odorless, white to yellowish white, hygroscpic powder. It is a relatively polar hydrophilic compound with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 0.59 at a pH of 7. It is freely soluble in water and methanol, soluble in alcohol, very slightly soluble in acetonitrile and practically insoluble in ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform.

Pharmacodynamics

General

Absorption: Pravastatin sodium is administered orally in the active form. In studies in man, peak plasma pravastatin concentrations occurred 1 to 1.5 hours upon oral administration. Based on urinary recovery of total radiolabeled drug, the average oral absorption of pravastatin is 34% and absolute bioavailability is 17%. While the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract reduces systemic bioavailability, the lipid-lowering effects of the drug are similar whether taken with or 1 hour prior to meals.

  • Pravastatin plasma concentrations, including area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), Cmax, and steady-state minimum (Cmin), are directly proportional to administered dose. Systemic bioavailability of pravastatin administered following a bedtime dose was decreased 60% compared to that following an AM dose. Despite this decrease in systemic bioavailability, the efficacy of pravastatin administered once daily in the evening, although not statistically significant, was marginally more effective than that after a morning dose.
  • The coefficient of variation (CV), based on between-subject variability, was 50% to 60% for AUC. The geometric means of pravastatin Cmax and AUC following a 20 mg dose in the fasted state were 26.5 ng/mL and 59.8 ng*hr/mL, respectively.
  • Steady-state AUCs, Cmax, and Cmin plasma concentrations showed no evidence of pravastatin accumulation following once or twice daily administration of pravastatin sodium tablets.

Distribution: Approximately 50% of the circulating drug is bound to plasma proteins.

Metabolism: The major biotransformation pathways for pravastatin are: (a) isomerization to 6-epi pravastatin and the 3α-hydroxyisomer of pravastatin (SQ 31,906) and (b) enzymatic ring hydroxylation to SQ 31,945. The 3α-hydroxyisomeric metabolite (SQ 31,906) has 1/10 to 1/40 the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of the parent compound. Pravastatin undergoes extensive first-pass extraction in the liver (extraction ratio 0.66).

Excretion: Approximately 20% of a radiolabeled oral dose is excreted in urine and 70% in the feces. After intravenous administration of radiolabeled pravastatin to normal volunteers, approximately 47% of total body clearance was via renal excretion and 53% by non-renal routes (i.e., biliary excretion and biotransformation). Following single dose oral administration of 14C-pravastatin, the radioactive elimination t½ for pravastatin is 1.8 hours in humans.

Specific Populations

Renal Impairment: A single 20 mg oral dose of pravastatin was administered to 24 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment (as determined by creatinine clearance). No effect was observed on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin or its 3α-hydroxy isomeric metabolite (SQ 31,906). Compared to healthy subjects with normal renal function, patients with severe renal impairment had 69% and 37% higher mean AUC and Cmax values, respectively, and a 0.61 hour shorter t½ for the inactive enzymatic ring hydroxylation metabolite (SQ 31,945).

Hepatic Impairment: In a study comparing the kinetics of pravastatin in patients with biopsy confirmed cirrhosis (N=7) and normal subjects (N=7), the mean AUC varied 18-fold in cirrhotic patients and 5-fold in healthy subjects. Similarly, the peak pravastatin values varied 47-fold for cirrhotic patients compared to 6-fold for healthy subjects.

Geriatric: In a single oral dose study using pravastatin 20 mg, the mean AUC for pravastatin was approximately 27% greater and the mean cumulative urinary excretion (CUE) approximately 19% lower in elderly men (65 to 75 years old) compared with younger men (19 to 31 years old). In a similar study conducted in women, the mean AUC for pravastatin was approximately 46% higher and the mean CUE approximately 18% lower in elderly women (65 to 78 years old) compared with younger women (18 to 38 years old). In both studies, Cmax, Tmax, and t½ values were similar in older and younger subjects.

Pediatric: After 2 weeks of once-daily 20 mg oral pravastatin administration, the geometric means of AUC were 80.7 (CV 44%) and 44.8 (CV 89%) ng*hr/mL for children (8 to 11 years, N=14) and adolescents (12 to 16 years, N=10), respectively. The corresponding values for Cmax were 42.4 (CV 54%) and 18.6 ng/mL (CV 100%) for children and adolescents, respectively. No conclusion can be made based on these findings due to the small number of samples and large variability.

Drug-Drug Interactions

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Pharmacokinetics

  • There is limited information regarding Pharmacokinetics of Pravastatin in the drug label.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

  • In a 2-year study in rats fed pravastatin at doses of 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg body weight, there was an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in males at the highest dose (p<0.01). These effects in rats were observed at approximately 12 times the human dose (HD) of 80 mg based on body surface area (mg/m2) and at approximately 4 times the HD, based on AUC.
  • In a 2-year study in mice fed pravastatin at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, there was an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in males and females at both 250 and 500 mg/kg/day (p<0.0001). At these doses, lung adenomas in females were increased (p=0.013). These effects in mice were observed at approximately 15 times (250 mg/kg/day) and 23 times (500 mg/kg/day) the HD of 80 mg, based on AUC. In another 2-year study in mice with doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (producing drug exposures approximately 2 times the HD of 80 mg, based on AUC), there were no drug-induced tumors.
  • No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in vitro, with or without rat-liver metabolic activation, in the following studies: microbial mutagen tests, using mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli; a forward mutation assay in L5178Y TK +/− mouse lymphoma cells; a chromosomal aberration test in hamster cells; and a gene conversion assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, there was no evidence of mutagenicity in either a dominant lethal test in mice or a micronucleus test in mice.
  • In a fertility study in adult rats with daily doses up to 500 mg/kg, pravastatin did not produce any adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance.

Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

CNS Toxicity

  • CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhage and edema and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, were seen in dogs treated with pravastatin at a dose of 25 mg/kg/day. These effects in dogs were observed at approximately 59 times the HD of 80 mg/day, based on AUC. Similar CNS vascular lesions have been observed with several other drugs in this class.
  • A chemically similar drug in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion starting at 60 mg/kg/day, a dose that produced mean plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose (as measured by total enzyme inhibitory activity). This same drug also produced vestibulocochlear Wallerian-like degeneration and retinal ganglion cell chromatolysis in dogs treated for 14 weeks at 180 mg/kg/day, a dose which resulted in a mean plasma drug level similar to that seen with the 60 mg/kg/day dose.
  • When administered to juvenile rats (postnatal days [PND] 4 through 80 at 5 to 45 mg/kg/day), no drug related changes were observed at 5 mg/kg/day. At 15 and 45 mg/kg/day, altered body-weight gain was observed during the dosing and 52-day recovery periods as well as slight thinning of the corpus callosum at the end of the recovery period. This finding was not evident in rats examined at the completion of the dosing period and was not associated with any inflammatory or degenerative changes in the brain. The biological relevance of the corpus callosum finding is uncertain due to the absence of any other microscopic changes in the brain or peripheral nervous tissue and because it occurred at the end of the recovery period. Neurobehavioral changes (enhanced acoustic startle responses and increased errors in water-maze learning) combined with evidence of generalized toxicity were noted at 45 mg/kg/day during the later part of the recovery period. Serum pravastatin levels at 15 mg/kg/day are approximately ≥1 times (AUC) the maximum pediatric dose of 40 mg. No thinning of the corpus callosum was observed in rats dosed with pravastatin (≥250 mg/kg/day) beginning PND 35 for 3 months suggesting increased sensitivity in younger rats. PND 35 in a rat is approximately equivalent to an 8- to 12-year-old human child. Juvenile male rats given 90 times (AUC) the 40 mg dose had decreased fertility (20%) with sperm abnormalities compared to controls.

Clinical Studies

Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

  • In the Pravastatin Primary Prevention Study (WOS),3 the effect of pravastatin sodium on fatal and nonfatal CHD was assessed in 6595 men 45 to 64 years of age, without a previous MI, and with LDL-C levels between 156 to 254 mg/dL (4 to 6.7 mmol/L). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with standard care, including dietary advice, and either pravastatin sodium 40 mg daily (N=3302) or placebo (N=3293) and followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. Median (25th, 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline after 6 months of pravastatin treatment in Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were −20.3 (−26.9, −11.7), −27.7 (−36, −16.9), −9.1 (−27.6, 12.5), and 6.7 (−2.1, 15.6), respectively.
  • Pravastatin sodium significantly reduced the rate of first coronary events (either CHD death or nonfatal MI) by 31% (248 events in the placebo group [CHD death=44, nonfatal MI=204] versus 174 events in the pravastatin sodium group [CHD death=31, nonfatal MI=143], p=0.0001 [see figure below]). The risk reduction with pravastatin sodium was similar and significant throughout the entire range of baseline LDL cholesterol levels. This reduction was also similar and significant across the age range studied with a 40% risk reduction for patients younger than 55 years and a 27% risk reduction for patients 55 years and older. The Pravastatin Primary Prevention Study included only men, and therefore it is not clear to what extent these data can be extrapolated to a similar population of female patients.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Pravastatin sodium also significantly decreased the risk for undergoing myocardial revascularization procedures (coronary artery bypass graft [CABG] surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) by 37% (80 vs 51 patients, p=0.009) and coronary angiography by 31% (128 vs 90, p=0.007). Cardiovascular deaths were decreased by 32% (73 vs 50, p=0.03) and there was no increase in death from non-cardiovascular causes.

Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events

  • In the PLAC I6 study, the effect of pravastatin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in patients with coronary disease and moderate hypercholesterolemia (baseline LDL-C range: 130 to 190 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 3 years in 264 patients. Although the difference between pravastatin and placebo for the primary endpoint (per-patient change in mean coronary artery diameter) and 1 of 2 secondary endpoints (change in percent lumen diameter stenosis) did not reach statistical significance, for the secondary endpoint of change in minimum lumen diameter, statistically significant slowing of disease was seen in the pravastatin treatment group (p=0.02).
  • In the REGRESS7 study, the effect of pravastatin on coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary angiography in 885 patients with angina pectoris, angiographically documented coronary artery disease, and hypercholesterolemia (baseline total cholesterol range: 160 to 310 mg/dL). In this double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, angiograms were evaluated at baseline and at 2 years in 653 patients (323 treated with pravastatin). Progression of coronary atherosclerosis was significantly slowed in the pravastatin group as assessed by changes in mean segment diameter (p=0.037) and minimum obstruction diameter (p=0.001).
  • Analysis of pooled events from PLAC I, PLAC II8, REGRESS, and KAPS9 studies (combined N=1891) showed that treatment with pravastatin was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the composite event rate of fatal and nonfatal MI (46 events or 6.4% for placebo versus 21 events or 2.4% for pravastatin, p=0.001). The predominant effect of pravastatin was to reduce the rate of nonfatal MI.

Primary Hypercholesterolemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb)

  • Pravastatin sodium is highly effective in reducing Total-C, LDL-C, and TG in patients with heterozygous familial, presumed familial combined, and non-familial (non-FH) forms of primary hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. A therapeutic response is seen within 1 week, and the maximum response usually is achieved within 4 weeks. This response is maintained during extended periods of therapy. In addition, pravastatin sodium is effective in reducing the risk of acute coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients with and without previous MI.
  • A single daily dose is as effective as the same total daily dose given twice a day. In multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin in daily doses ranging from 10 to 40 mg consistently and significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, TG, and Total-C/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (see Table 5).
  • In a pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, treatment with pravastatin at a daily dose of 80 mg (N=277) significantly decreased Total-C, LDL-C, and TG. The 25th and 75th percentile changes from baseline in LDL-C for pravastatin 80 mg were −43% and −30%. The efficacy results of the individual studies were consistent with the pooled data (see Table 5).
  • Treatment with pravastatin sodium modestly decreased VLDL-C and pravastatin sodium across all doses produced variable increases in HDL-C (see Table 5).
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  • In another clinical trial, patients treated with pravastatin in combination with cholestyramine (70% of patients were taking cholestyramine 20 or 24 g per day) had reductions equal to or greater than 50% in LDL-C. Furthermore, pravastatin attenuated cholestyramine-induced increases in TG levels (which are themselves of uncertain clinical significance).

Hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV)

  • The response to pravastatin in patients with Type IV hyperlipidemia (baseline TG >200 mg/dL and LDL-C <160 mg/dL) was evaluated in a subset of 429 patients. For pravastatin-treated subjects, the median (min, max) baseline TG level was 246 (200.5, 349.5) mg/dL (see Table 6.)
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Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III)

The response to pravastatin in two double-blind crossover studies of 46 patients with genotype E2/E2 and Fredrickson Type III dysbetalipoproteinemia is shown in Table 7.

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Pediatric Clinical Study

  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 214 patients (100 boys and 114 girls) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), aged 8 to 18 years was conducted for 2 years. The children (aged 8 to 13 years) were randomized to placebo (N=63) or 20 mg of pravastatin daily (N=65) and the adolescents (aged 14 to 18 years) were randomized to placebo (N=45) or 40 mg of pravastatin daily (N=41). Inclusion in the study required an LDL-C level >95th percentile for age and sex and one parent with either a clinical or molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 239 mg/dL and 237 mg/dL in the pravastatin (range: 151 to 405 mg/dL) and placebo (range: 154 to 375 mg/dL) groups, respectively.
  • Pravastatin significantly decreased plasma levels of LDL-C, Total-C, and ApoB in both children and adolescents (see Table 8). The effect of pravastatin treatment in the 2 age groups was similar.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The mean achieved LDL-C was 186 mg/dL (range: 67 to 363 mg/dL) in the pravastatin group compared to 236 mg/dL (range: 105 to 438 mg/dL) in the placebo group.
  • The safety and efficacy of pravastatin doses above 40 mg daily have not been studied in children. The long-term efficacy of pravastatin therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.

How Supplied

  • Pravastatin sodium tablets USP are supplied as:
  • 10 mg tablets: Yellow colored, circular shaped tablets having flat surface, with “G5” debossed on one surface and “10” debossed on the other surface. They are supplied in bottles of 90 (NDC 68462-195-90) and bottles of 500 (NDC 68462-195-05). Bottles contain a desiccant canister.
  • 20 mg tablets: Yellow rounded-rectangular tablets having biconvex surface, with “G5” debossed on one surface and “20” debossed on the other surface. They are supplied in bottles of 90 (NDC 68462-196-90) and bottles of 500 (NDC 68462-196-05). Bottles contain a desiccant canister.
  • 40 mg tablets: Green rounded-rectangular tablets having biconvex surface, with “G5” debossed on one surface and “40” debossed on the other surface. They are supplied in bottles of 90 (NDC 68462-197-90) and bottles of 500 (NDC 68462-197-05). Bottles contain a desiccant canister.
  • 80 mg tablets: Yellow oval tablets having biconvex surface, with “G5” debossed on one surface and “80” debossed on the other surface. They are supplied in bottles of 90 (NDC 68462-198-90) and bottles of 500 (NDC 68462-198-05). Bottles contain a desiccant canister.

Storage

  • Store at 20o to 25oC (68o to 77oF); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).
  • Keep tightly closed (protect from moisture). Protect from light.

Images

Drug Images

Pravastatin 10 mg NDC 68462-195.jpg

Drug Name: Pravastatin Sodium 10 MG Oral Tablet
Ingredient(s): silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10
Imprint: G5;10
Dosage: 10 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:68462-195

Drug Label Author: Glenmark Generics Inc., USA

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Pravastatin 20 mg NDC 68462-196.jpg

Drug Name: Pravastatin Sodium 20 MG Oral Tablet
Ingredient(s): silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10
Imprint: G5;20
Dosage: 20 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape:
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:68462-196

Drug Label Author: Glenmark Generics Inc., USA

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Pravastatin 40 mg NDC 68462-197.jpg

Drug Name: Pravastatin Sodium 40 MG Oral Tablet
Ingredient(s): silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10
Imprint: G5;40
Dosage: 40 mg
Color(s): Green
Shape:
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:68462-197

Drug Label Author: Glenmark Generics Inc., USA

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Pravastatin 80 mg NDC 68462-198.jpg

Drug Name: Pravastatin Sodium 80 MG Oral Tablet
Ingredient(s): silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromelloses, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, cellulose, microcrystalline, starch, corn, d&c yellow no. 10
Imprint: G5;80
Dosage: 80 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Oval
Size (mm): 18
Score: 1
NDC:68462-198

Drug Label Author: Glenmark Generics Inc., USA

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Pravastatin label 01.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin label 02.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin label 03.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin label 04.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin panel 01.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin panel 02.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin panel 03.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Pravastatin panel 04.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of pravastatin sodium, and thereafter when clinically indicated. All patients treated with pravastatin sodium should be advised to promptly report any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine, or jaundice [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Manufactured by: Glenmark Generics Ltd. Colvale-Bardez, Goa 403 513, India Manufactured for: Glenmark logo Glenmark Generics Inc., USA Mahwah, NJ 07430 Questions? 1 (888)721-7115 www.glenmarkgenerics.com May 2014

Precautions with Alcohol

Caution should be exercised when pravastatin is administered to patients who have a recent (<6 months) history of liver disease, have signs that may suggest liver disease (e.g., unexplained aminotransferase elevations, jaundice), or are heavy users of alcohol.

Brand Names

Pravachol

Look-Alike Drug Names

pravastatin - pitavastatin Pravachol - prasugrel[2]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Neuvonen, PJ; Backman, JT; Niemi, M (2008). "Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 47 (7): 463–74. doi:10.2165/00003088-200847070-00003. PMID 18563955.
  2. "https://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)


"Rectangular" is not in the list (Round, Oval, Square, Triangular, Capsule, Pentagon, Hexagon, Diamond, Gear, DoubleCircle, ...) of allowed values for the "Pill Shape" property.
"Rectangular" is not in the list (Round, Oval, Square, Triangular, Capsule, Pentagon, Hexagon, Diamond, Gear, DoubleCircle, ...) of allowed values for the "Pill Shape" property.

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