Desmoid tumor differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Home logo1.png

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mohsin, M.B.B.S.[2]

Overview

Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor must be differentiated from fibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and Gardner fibroma. Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor must be differentiated from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), benign fibrous tumor/solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), sclerosing mesenteritis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Furthermore, generally all desmoid tumors must be differentiated from acute hematoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, neurofibroma, nodular fasciitis, hypertrophic scars,keloids and primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

Differentiating Desmoid tumor from other Diseases

Differentiating desmoid tumor from other diseases
Disease entity Etiology (Genetic or others) Histopathological findings Immunohistochemical staining Benign/Malignant Risk factors Common site of involvement Clinical manifestations Other associated features
Desmoid tumor Sporadic desmoids are associated with following mutations:

Familial desmoids/Hereditary desmoid disease is associated with:

Pediatric desmoids have following additional mutations involving:

Histologically, desmoid tumors consist of: Positive for:

Negative for:

Desmoids may be associated with following:
Fibrosarcoma/Fibroblastic sarcoma Strongly positive for:

Negative for:

Primary bone malignancy involving end of long bones:
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma[4][5][9][10][11][12][13][14] Translocation:
  • t(7;18;16) or
  • t(7;16) (q34:p11)

Fusion gene:

Positive for:
  • MUC4 (highly specific and sensitive)
  • Vimentin

Occasionally positive for:

Negative for:

_
Majority occurring in subfascial location and rarely involving subcutis or dermis in following sites:
  • Painless, slow-growing well-circumscribed mass
  • Average size-5cm (ranges from 1-20cm)
_
Benign fibrous tumor/Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Intra-chromosomal inversion at:

TERT promoter mutations responsible for:

Positive for:

In few cases, positive for:

Negative for:

_ Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with SFTs include:
Gardner fibroma/Gardner-associated fibroma (GAF)[24][25][6][26] Positive for: Any part of body:
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)[27][28][29][30][31] Activating mutation of:

Pediatric GISTs (SDH-deficient) have mutations of one of the:

GIST as a part of Carney triad has following mutation:

Wild-type GISTs have following three molecular subtypes:

GIST cells basically arise from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and appear as follows on histology: Positive for:

Consistently negative for:

Can involve any part of GIT: Depending on tumor size and localization in GIT: _
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT)[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][33][36][7] Unknown underlying etiology, may be due to inflammatory reaction to:

Mutations such as:

Positive for:

Negative for:

Also known as:
Sclerosing mesenteritis[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]

[53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]

Unknown exact etiology: Varying components of: _ Nomenclature used in the medical literature for idiopathic primary inflammatory and fibrotic processes of the mesentery is as follows:
Retroperitoneal fibrosis[61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73]

Idiopathic (70%) [Ormond's disease] is an immune-mediated disease caused by:

Secondary to:

Fibro-inflammatory disease histologically hallmarked by fibrous tissue and chronic inflammation: Retroperitoneal fibrosis is also known as:
Lymphoma Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL):

Extranodal marginal B cell lymphoma:

Follicular lymphoma:

Burkitt lymphoma:

Positive for:

Negative for:

Anywhere in body WHO classification of lymphoma:
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)[74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83] Histologic classification: Positive for:

Maybe positive for:

Histology of RMS similar to that of other childhood small round blue cell tumors involving bone and soft tissue such as:
Liposarcoma[84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93] Atypical lipomatous tumor/well differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma are associated with:

Myxoid liposarcoma is associated with:

Pleomorphic liposarcoma is associated with:

Well-differentiated liposarcoma:

De-differentiated liposarcoma:

Atypical lipomatous tumor/well differentiated liposarcoma is positive for: _
Leiomyosarcoma[94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102] Positive for:

Negative for:

_
Neurofibroma[103][104][105][106][107][108][109][106][110][111][112] Can be sporadic or as a part of Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2 Positive for:

Negative for:

Nodular fasciitis[113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122] Positive for:

Negative for:

Also known as:
Hypertrophic scars _

Adverse wound healing factors at the injury site such as:

Hypertrophic scars can be classified as:
Keloids[123][124][125][126] _

Adverse wound healing factors at the injury site such as:

Keloids may be associated with rare inherited syndromes such as:

Keloids can be prevented by using:

Keloids can be classified as:

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)[127][128][129] Positive for:

Negative for:

Also known as:

WHO classified PNET into 3 subtypes:

Peripheral PNET (pPNET) is now thought to be virtually identical to Ewing sarcoma

Reference

  1. Economou, Athanasios; Pitta, Xanthi; Andreadis, Efstathios; Papapavlou, Leonidas; Chrissidis, Thomas (2011). "Desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall: a case report". Journal of Medical Case Reports. 5 (1): 326. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-326. ISSN 1752-1947.
  2. Kasper B, Ströbel P, Hohenberger P (2011). "Desmoid tumors: clinical features and treatment options for advanced disease". Oncologist. 16 (5): 682–93. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2010-0281. PMC 3228186. PMID 21478276.
  3. Carlson JW, Fletcher CD (2007). "Immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions: analysis of a series and review of the literature". Histopathology. 51 (4): 509–14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2007.02794.x. PMID 17711447.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wu X, Petrovic V, Torode IP, Chow CW (2009). "Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: problems in the diagnosis and management of a malignant tumour with bland histological appearance". Pathology. 41 (2): 155–60. doi:10.1080/00313020802579276. PMID 19152188.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bartuma H, Möller E, Collin A, Domanski HA, Von Steyern FV, Mandahl N; et al. (2010). "Fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes in a supernumerary ring chromosome in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma". Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 199 (2): 143–6. doi:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2010.02.011. PMID 20471519.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Wehrli BM, Weiss SW, Yandow S, Coffin CM (2001). "Gardner-associated fibromas (GAF) in young patients: a distinct fibrous lesion that identifies unsuspected Gardner syndrome and risk for fibromatosis". Am J Surg Pathol. 25 (5): 645–51. PMID 11342777.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Coffin CM, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD (2007). "Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: comparison of clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features including ALK expression in atypical and aggressive cases". Am J Surg Pathol. 31 (4): 509–20. doi:10.1097/01.pas.0000213393.57322.c7. PMID 17414097.
  8. Swartz RD (2009). "Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: a review of the pathogenesis and approaches to treatment". Am J Kidney Dis. 54 (3): 546–53. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.04.019. PMID 19515472.
  9. Doyle LA, Möller E, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD, Mertens F, Hornick JL (2011). "MUC4 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma". Am J Surg Pathol. 35 (5): 733–41. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e318210c268. PMID 21415703.
  10. Lee AF, Yip S, Smith AC, Hayes MM, Nielsen TO, O'Connell JX (2011). "Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the perineum with heterotopic ossification: case report and review of the literature". Hum Pathol. 42 (11): 1804–9. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2011.01.023. PMID 21658743.
  11. Brasanac D, Dzelatovic NS, Stojanovic M (2013). "Giant cystic superficial low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma". Ann Diagn Pathol. 17 (2): 222–5. doi:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2011.09.001. PMID 22136982.
  12. Vernon SE, Bejarano PA (2006). "Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a brief review". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 130 (9): 1358–60. doi:10.1043/1543-2165(2006)130[1358:LFSABR]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16948525.
  13. Lane KL, Shannon RJ, Weiss SW (1997). "Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes: a distinctive tumor closely resembling low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma". Am J Surg Pathol. 21 (12): 1481–8. PMID 9414192.
  14. Nielsen GP, Selig MK, O'Connell JX, Keel SB, Dickersin GR, Rosenberg AE (1999). "Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes: a report of three cases with ultrastructural analysis". Am J Surg Pathol. 23 (10): 1227–32. PMID 10524523.
  15. Hanau CA, Miettinen M (1995). "Solitary fibrous tumor: histological and immunohistochemical spectrum of benign and malignant variants presenting at different sites". Hum Pathol. 26 (4): 440–9. PMID 7705824.
  16. de Saint Aubain Somerhausen N, Rubin BP, Fletcher CD (1999). "Myxoid solitary fibrous tumor: a study of seven cases with emphasis on differential diagnosis". Mod Pathol. 12 (5): 463–71. PMID 10349983.
  17. Cranshaw IM, Gikas PD, Fisher C, Thway K, Thomas JM, Hayes AJ (2009). "Clinical outcomes of extra-thoracic solitary fibrous tumours". Eur J Surg Oncol. 35 (9): 994–8. doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2009.02.015. PMID 19345055.
  18. England DM, Hochholzer L, McCarthy MJ (1989). "Localized benign and malignant fibrous tumors of the pleura. A clinicopathologic review of 223 cases". Am J Surg Pathol. 13 (8): 640–58. PMID 2665534.
  19. Demicco EG, Park MS, Araujo DM, Fox PS, Bassett RL, Pollock RE; et al. (2012). "Solitary fibrous tumor: a clinicopathological study of 110 cases and proposed risk assessment model". Mod Pathol. 25 (9): 1298–306. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.83. PMID 22575866.
  20. van Houdt WJ, Westerveld CM, Vrijenhoek JE, van Gorp J, van Coevorden F, Verhoef C; et al. (2013). "Prognosis of solitary fibrous tumors: a multicenter study". Ann Surg Oncol. 20 (13): 4090–5. doi:10.1245/s10434-013-3242-9. PMID 24052313.
  21. Chmielecki J, Crago AM, Rosenberg M, O'Connor R, Walker SR, Ambrogio L; et al. (2013). "Whole-exome sequencing identifies a recurrent NAB2-STAT6 fusion in solitary fibrous tumors". Nat Genet. 45 (2): 131–2. doi:10.1038/ng.2522. PMC 3984043. PMID 23313954.
  22. Robinson DR, Wu YM, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Cao X, Lonigro RJ, Sung YS; et al. (2013). "Identification of recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions in solitary fibrous tumor by integrative sequencing". Nat Genet. 45 (2): 180–5. doi:10.1038/ng.2509. PMC 3654808. PMID 23313952.
  23. Schweizer L, Koelsche C, Sahm F, Piro RM, Capper D, Reuss DE; et al. (2013). "Meningeal hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumors carry the NAB2-STAT6 fusion and can be diagnosed by nuclear expression of STAT6 protein". Acta Neuropathol. 125 (5): 651–8. doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1117-6. PMID 23575898.
  24. Coffin, Cheryl M.; Hornick, Jason L.; Zhou, Holly; Fletcher, Christopher D.M. (2007). "Gardner Fibroma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis of 45 Patients With 57 Fibromas". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 31 (3): 410–416. doi:10.1097/01.pas.0000213348.65014.0a. ISSN 0147-5185.
  25. Dahl, Nathan A.; Sheil, Amy; Knapke, Sarah; Geller, James I. (2016). "Gardner Fibroma". Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 38 (5): e154–e157. doi:10.1097/MPH.0000000000000493. ISSN 1077-4114.
  26. Schäfer M, Kadmon M, Schmidt W, Treiber I, Moog U, Sutter C; et al. (2016). "Neonatal Gardner Fibroma Leads to Detection of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Two Case Reports". European J Pediatr Surg Rep. 4 (1): 17–21. doi:10.1055/s-0036-1582443. PMC 5177561. PMID 28018803.
  27. Zarkavelis G, Petrakis D, Pavlidis N (2015). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumors during pregnancy: a systematic review of an uncommon but treatable malignancy". Clin Transl Oncol. 17 (10): 757–62. doi:10.1007/s12094-015-1315-x. PMID 26055339.
  28. Navarrete A, Momblán D, Almenara R, Lacy A (2017). "Giant Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)". J Gastrointest Surg. 21 (1): 202–204. doi:10.1007/s11605-016-3196-x. PMID 27384431.
  29. Scherjon S, Lam WF, Gelderblom H, Jansen FW (2009). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumor in pregnancy: a case report". Case Rep Med. 2009: 456402. doi:10.1155/2009/456402. PMC 2745024. PMID 19763238.
  30. Acín-Gándara D, Pereira-Pérez F, Castaño-Pascual A, Durán-Poveda M, Antequera-Pérez A, Miliani-Molina C (2012). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: diagnosis and treatment". Cir Cir. 80 (1): 44–51. PMID 22472152.
  31. Lanzafame S, Minutolo V, Caltabiano R, Minutolo O, Marino B, Gagliano G; et al. (2006). "About a case of GIST occurring during pregnancy with immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and progesterone receptor". Pathol Res Pract. 202 (2): 119–23. doi:10.1016/j.prp.2005.08.013. PMID 16413690.
  32. Coffin CM, Watterson J, Priest JR, Dehner LP (1995). "Extrapulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (inflammatory pseudotumor). A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 84 cases". Am J Surg Pathol. 19 (8): 859–72. PMID 7611533.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Wenig BM, Devaney K, Bisceglia M (1995). "Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the larynx. A clinicopathologic study of eight cases simulating a malignant spindle cell neoplasm". Cancer. 76 (11): 2217–29. PMID 8635024.
  34. Ramachandra S, Hollowood K, Bisceglia M, Fletcher CD (1995). "Inflammatory pseudotumour of soft tissues: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 18 cases". Histopathology. 27 (4): 313–23. PMID 8847061.
  35. Häusler M, Schaade L, Ramaekers VT, Doenges M, Heimann G, Sellhaus B (2003). "Inflammatory pseudotumors of the central nervous system: report of 3 cases and a literature review". Hum Pathol. 34 (3): 253–62. doi:10.1053/hupa.2003.35. PMID 12673560.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Rabban JT, Zaloudek CJ, Shekitka KM, Tavassoli FA (2005). "Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 6 cases emphasizing distinction from aggressive mesenchymal tumors". Am J Surg Pathol. 29 (10): 1348–55. PMID 16160478.
  37. Kovach SJ, Fischer AC, Katzman PJ, Salloum RM, Ettinghausen SE, Madeb R; et al. (2006). "Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors". J Surg Oncol. 94 (5): 385–91. doi:10.1002/jso.20516. PMID 16967468.
  38. Coffin CM, Dehner LP, Meis-Kindblom JM (1998). "Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, inflammatory fibrosarcoma, and related lesions: an historical review with differential diagnostic considerations". Semin Diagn Pathol. 15 (2): 102–10. PMID 9606802.
  39. Berardi RS, Lee SS, Chen HP, Stines GJ (1983). "Inflammatory pseudotumors of the lung". Surg Gynecol Obstet. 156 (1): 89–96. PMID 6336632.
  40. Durst AL, Freund H, Rosenmann E, Birnbaum D (1977). "Mesenteric panniculitis: review of the leterature and presentation of cases". Surgery. 81 (2): 203–11. PMID 835091.
  41. Kipfer RE, Moertel CG, Dahlin DC (1974). "Mesenteric lipodystrophy". Ann Intern Med. 80 (5): 582–8. PMID 4499963.
  42. Monahan DW, Poston WK, Brown GJ (1989). "Mesenteric panniculitis". South Med J. 82 (6): 782–4. PMID 2660295.
  43. Parra-Davila E, McKenney MG, Sleeman D, Hartmann R, Rao RK, McKenney K; et al. (1998). "Mesenteric panniculitis: case report and literature review". Am Surg. 64 (8): 768–71. PMID 9697910.
  44. Kelly JK, Hwang WS (1989). "Idiopathic retractile (sclerosing) mesenteritis and its differential diagnosis". Am J Surg Pathol. 13 (6): 513–21. PMID 2658633.
  45. Emory TS, Monihan JM, Carr NJ, Sobin LH (1997). "Sclerosing mesenteritis, mesenteric panniculitis and mesenteric lipodystrophy: a single entity?". Am J Surg Pathol. 21 (4): 392–8. PMID 9130985.
  46. OGDEN WW, BRADBURN DM, RIVES JD (1965). "MESENTERIC PANNICULITIS: REVIEW OF 27 CASES". Ann Surg. 161: 864–75. PMC 1409094. PMID 14295938.
  47. Khachaturian T, Hughes J (1988). "Mesenteric panniculitis". West J Med. 148 (6): 700–1. PMC 1026221. PMID 3176478.
  48. Daskalogiannaki M, Voloudaki A, Prassopoulos P, Magkanas E, Stefanaki K, Apostolaki E; et al. (2000). "CT evaluation of mesenteric panniculitis: prevalence and associated diseases". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 174 (2): 427–31. doi:10.2214/ajr.174.2.1740427. PMID 10658720.
  49. Akram S, Pardi DS, Schaffner JA, Smyrk TC (2007). "Sclerosing mesenteritis: clinical features, treatment, and outcome in ninety-two patients". Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 5 (5): 589–96, quiz 523-4. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.02.032. PMID 17478346.
  50. Sharma P, Yadav S, Needham CM, Feuerstadt P (2017). "Sclerosing mesenteritis: a systematic review of 192 cases". Clin J Gastroenterol. 10 (2): 103–111. doi:10.1007/s12328-017-0716-5. PMID 28197781.
  51. van der Hulst RW, Rauws EA, Tytgat GN (1995). "Mesenteritis secondary to the use of a pneumatic jackhammer". Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 7 (6): 573–5. PMID 7552643.
  52. Mathew J, McKenna F, Mason J, Haboubi NY, Borghol M (2004). "Sclerosing mesenteritis with occult ileal perforation: report of a case simulating extensive intra-abdominal malignancy". Dis Colon Rectum. 47 (11): 1974–7. PMID 15622594.
  53. Horton KM, Lawler LP, Fishman EK (2003). "CT findings in sclerosing mesenteritis (panniculitis): spectrum of disease". Radiographics. 23 (6): 1561–7. doi:10.1148/rg.1103035010. PMID 14615565.
  54. Papadaki HA, Kouroumalis EA, Stefanaki K, Roussomoustakaki M, Daskalogiannaki ME, Reppa D; et al. (2000). "Retractile mesenteritis presenting as fever of unknown origin and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Digestion. 61 (2): 145–8. doi:10.1159/000007748. PMID 10705180.
  55. Vidarsson B, Matthíasson P, Agnarsson BA, Onundarson PT (2002). "Mesenteric panniculitis presenting with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Acta Haematol. 107 (1): 35–7. doi:10.1159/000046627. PMID 11818670.
  56. Vernace MA, Bellucci AG, Mossey RT, Susin M, Mailloux LU, Wilkes BM; et al. (1996). "Minimal change nephropathy associated with sclerosing mesenteritis". Nephron. 73 (3): 473–6. doi:10.1159/000189113. PMID 8832610.
  57. Dor AM, Kohler JL, Aubrespy P, Scheiner C, Pizzi M, Lebreuil G (1982). "[Mesenteric panniculitis, an unusual initial stage of acute lupus erythematosus in a ten-year old girl (author's transl)]". Arch Anat Cytol Pathol. 30 (2): 121–4. PMID 7103574.
  58. Sauvaget F, Piette JC, Galezowski N, Jouanique C, Chapelon C, Blétry O; et al. (1993). "[Relapsing polychondritis and mesenteric panniculitis: apropos of 2 cases]". Rev Med Interne. 14 (4): 253–6. PMID 8378657.
  59. Arroyo-Ávila M, Vilá LM (2014). "Limited systemic sclerosis initially presenting with mesenteric panniculitis". BMJ Case Rep. 2014. doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-206961. PMC 4202032. PMID 25326572.
  60. Garrido A, Verdejo C, Márquez JL, Giráldez A, Trigo C, Belda O (2008). "[Intestinal lymphoma and mesenteric panniculitis: complications of undiagnosed celiac disease]". Gastroenterol Hepatol. 31 (4): 221–4. PMID 18405487.
  61. Vaglio, A.; Maritati, F. (2016). "Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 27 (7): 1880–1889. doi:10.1681/ASN.2015101110. ISSN 1046-6673.
  62. Vaglio A, Salvarani C, Buzio C (2006). "Retroperitoneal fibrosis". Lancet. 367 (9506): 241–51. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68035-5. PMID 16427494.
  63. ORMOND JK (1948). "Bilateral ureteral obstruction due to envelopment and compression by an inflammatory retroperitoneal process". J Urol. 59 (6): 1072–9. PMID 18858051.
  64. van Bommel EF (2002). "Retroperitoneal fibrosis". Neth J Med. 60 (6): 231–42. PMID 12365466.
  65. Scheel PJ, Feeley N (2009). "Retroperitoneal fibrosis: the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic presentation". Medicine (Baltimore). 88 (4): 202–7. doi:10.1097/MD.0b013e3181afc439. PMID 19593224.
  66. Vaglio A, Palmisano A, Alberici F, Maggiore U, Ferretti S, Cobelli R; et al. (2011). "Prednisone versus tamoxifen in patients with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: an open-label randomised controlled trial". Lancet. 378 (9788): 338–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60934-3. PMID 21733570.
  67. Palmisano A, Urban ML, Corradi D, Cobelli R, Alberici F, Maritati F; et al. (2015). "Chronic periaortitis with thoracic aorta and epiaortic artery involvement: a systemic large vessel vasculitis?". Rheumatology (Oxford). 54 (11): 2004–9. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kev225. PMID 26106209.
  68. Uibu T, Oksa P, Auvinen A, Honkanen E, Metsärinne K, Saha H; et al. (2004). "Asbestos exposure as a risk factor for retroperitoneal fibrosis". Lancet. 363 (9419): 1422–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16100-X. PMID 15121404.
  69. Koep L, Zuidema GD (1977). "The clinical significance of retroperitoneal fibrosis". Surgery. 81 (3): 250–7. PMID 841463.
  70. Graham JR, Suby HI, LeCompte PR, Sadowsky NL (1966). "Fibrotic disorders associated with methysergide therapy for headache". N Engl J Med. 274 (7): 359–68. doi:10.1056/NEJM196602172740701. PMID 5903120.
  71. UTZ DC, ROOKE ED, SPITTELL JA, BARTHOLOMEW LG (1965). "RETROPERITONEAL FIBROSIS IN PATIENTS TAKING METHYSERGIDE". JAMA. 191: 983–5. PMID 14257741.
  72. Goenka AH, Shah SN, Remer EM (2012). "Imaging of the retroperitoneum". Radiol Clin North Am. 50 (2): 333–55, vii. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2012.02.004. PMID 22498446.
  73. Goldoni M, Bonini S, Urban ML, Palmisano A, De Palma G, Galletti E; et al. (2014). "Asbestos and smoking as risk factors for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: a case-control study". Ann Intern Med. 161 (3): 181–8. doi:10.7326/M13-2648. PMID 25089862.
  74. H. M. Maurer, M. Beltangady, E. A. Gehan, W. Crist, D. Hammond, D. M. Hays, R. Heyn, W. Lawrence, W. Newton & J. Ortega (1988). "The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-I. A final report". Cancer. 61 (2): 209–220. PMID 3275486. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  75. H. M. Maurer, E. A. Gehan, M. Beltangady, W. Crist, P. S. Dickman, S. S. Donaldson, C. Fryer, D. Hammond, D. M. Hays & J. Herrmann (1993). "The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-II". Cancer. 71 (5): 1904–1922. PMID 8448756. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  76. W. Crist, E. A. Gehan, A. H. Ragab, P. S. Dickman, S. S. Donaldson, C. Fryer, D. Hammond, D. M. Hays, J. Herrmann & R. Heyn (1995). "The Third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study". Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 13 (3): 610–630. doi:10.1200/JCO.1995.13.3.610. PMID 7884423. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  77. Michael C. G. Stevens, Annie Rey, Nathalie Bouvet, Caroline Ellershaw, Francoise Flamant, Jean Louis Habrand, H. Basil Marsden, Helene Martelli, Jose Sanchez de Toledo, Richard D. Spicer, David Spooner, Marie Jose Terrier-Lacombe, Adrian van Unnik & Odile Oberlin (2005). "Treatment of nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood and adolescence: third study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology--SIOP Malignant Mesenchymal Tumor 89". Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 23 (12): 2618–2628. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.08.130. PMID 15728225. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  78. S. R. Months & R. B. Raney (1986). "Rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children: the experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia". Medical and pediatric oncology. 14 (5): 288–292. PMID 3784981.
  79. J. Hicks & C. Flaitz (2002). "Rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children". Oral oncology. 38 (5): 450–459. PMID 12110339. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  80. E. Shapiro & D. Strother (1992). "Pediatric genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma". The Journal of urology. 148 (6): 1761–1768. PMID 1433603. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  81. W. Jr Lawrence, D. M. Hays & T. E. Moon (1977). "Lymphatic metastasis with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma". Cancer. 39 (2): 556–559. PMID 837339. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  82. W. Jr Lawrence, E. A. Gehan, D. M. Hays, M. Beltangady & H. M. Maurer (1987). "Prognostic significance of staging factors of the UICC staging system in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS-II)". Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 5 (1): 46–54. doi:10.1200/JCO.1987.5.1.46. PMID 3543238. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  83. E. S. Wiener, J. R. Anderson, J. I. Ojimba, T. E. Lobe, C. Paidas, R. J. Andrassy, R. B. Raney, S. J. Qualman, S. S. Donaldson, H. M. Maurer, M. P. Link, W. M. Crist & H. E. Grier (2001). "Controversies in the management of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: is staging retroperitoneal lymph node dissection necessary for adolescents with resected paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma?". Seminars in pediatric surgery. 10 (3): 146–152. PMID 11481652. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  84. Khin Thway, Rashpal Flora, Chirag Shah, David Olmos & Cyril Fisher (2012). "Diagnostic utility of p16, CDK4, and MDM2 as an immunohistochemical panel in distinguishing well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas from other adipocytic tumors". The American journal of surgical pathology. 36 (3): 462–469. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3182417330. PMID 22301498. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  85. J. Rosai, M. Akerman, P. Dal Cin, I. DeWever, C. D. Fletcher, N. Mandahl, F. Mertens, F. Mitelman, A. Rydholm, R. Sciot, G. Tallini, H. Van den Berghe, W. Van de Ven, R. Vanni & H. Willen (1996). "Combined morphologic and karyotypic study of 59 atypical lipomatous tumors. Evaluation of their relationship and differential diagnosis with other adipose tissue tumors (a report of the CHAMP Study Group)". The American journal of surgical pathology. 20 (10): 1182–1189. PMID 8827023. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  86. Dal Cin, Paola; Kools, Patrick; Sciot, Raf; De Wever, Ivo; Van Damme, Boudewijn; Van de Ven, Wim; Van Den Berghe, Herman (1993). "Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization investigation of ring chromosomes characterizing a specific pathologic subgroup of adipose tissue tumors". Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. 68 (2): 85–90. doi:10.1016/0165-4608(93)90001-3. ISSN 0165-4608.
  87. Dei Tos, Angelo P.; Doglioni, Claudio; Piccinin, Sara; Sciot, Raf; Furlanetto, Alberto; Boiocchi, Mauro; Dal Cin, Paola; Maestro, Roberta; Fletcher, Christopher D. M.; Tallini, Giovanni (2000). "Coordinated expression and amplification of theMDM2,CDK4, andHMGI-C genes in atypical lipomatous tumours". The Journal of Pathology. 190 (5): 531–536. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(200004)190:5<531::AID-PATH579>3.0.CO;2-W. ISSN 0022-3417.
  88. Dei Tos, A (2000). "Liposarcoma: New entities and evolving concepts". Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. 4 (4): 252–266. doi:10.1053/adpa.2000.8133. ISSN 1092-9134.
  89. M. D. Kraus, L. Guillou & C. D. Fletcher (1997). "Well-differentiated inflammatory liposarcoma: an uncommon and easily overlooked variant of a common sarcoma". The American journal of surgical pathology. 21 (5): 518–527. PMID 9158675. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  90. P. Argani, F. Facchetti, G. Inghirami & J. Rosai (1997). "Lymphocyte-rich well-differentiated liposarcoma: report of nine cases". The American journal of surgical pathology. 21 (8): 884–895. PMID 9255251. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  91. H. L. Evans (1979). "Liposarcoma: a study of 55 cases with a reassessment of its classification". The American journal of surgical pathology. 3 (6): 507–523. PMID 534388. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  92. A. P. Dei Tos, T. Mentzel, P. L. Newman & C. D. Fletcher (1994). "Spindle cell liposarcoma, a hitherto unrecognized variant of liposarcoma. Analysis of six cases". The American journal of surgical pathology. 18 (9): 913–921. PMID 8067512. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  93. D. C. Dahlin, K. K. Unni & T. Matsuno (1977). "Malignant (fibrous) histiocytoma of bone--fact or fancy?". Cancer. 39 (4): 1508–1516. PMID 192432. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  94. Laura M. 3rd Arnold, Sudeep D. Burman & Albert H. O-Yurvati (2010). "Diagnosis and management of primary pulmonary leiomyosarcoma". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 110 (4): 244–246. PMID 20430913. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  95. Wilkinson, N; Rollason, T P (2001). "Recent advances in the pathology of smooth muscle tumours of the uterus". Histopathology. 39 (4): 331–341. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2559.2001.01300.x. ISSN 0309-0167.
  96. S. W. Bell, R. L. Kempson & M. R. Hendrickson (1994). "Problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms. A clinicopathologic study of 213 cases". The American journal of surgical pathology. 18 (6): 535–558. PMID 8179071. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  97. Launonen, V.; Vierimaa, O.; Kiuru, M.; Isola, J.; Roth, S.; Pukkala, E.; Sistonen, P.; Herva, R.; Aaltonen, L. A. (2001). "Inherited susceptibility to uterine leiomyomas and renal cell cancer". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (6): 3387–3392. doi:10.1073/pnas.051633798. ISSN 0027-8424.
  98. McClain, Kenneth L.; Leach, Charles T.; Jenson, Hal B.; Joshi, Vijay V.; Pollock, Brad H.; Parmley, Richard T.; DiCarlo, Frederick J.; Chadwick, Ellen Gould; Murphy, Sharon B. (1995). "Association of Epstein–Barr Virus with Leiomyosarcomas in Young People with AIDS". New England Journal of Medicine. 332 (1): 12–18. doi:10.1056/NEJM199501053320103. ISSN 0028-4793.
  99. Fang, Zhiwei; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Ae, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Ueda, Takafumi; Ishii, Takeshi; Araki, Nobuhito; Kito, Masashi (2004). "Postradiation soft tissue sarcoma: a multiinstitutional analysis of 14 cases in Japan". Journal of Orthopaedic Science. 9 (3): 242–246. doi:10.1007/s00776-004-0768-5. ISSN 0949-2658.
  100. Futuri, S.; Donohoe, K.; Spaccavento, C.; Yudelman, I. (2014). "Rectal leiomyosarcoma: a rare and long-term complication of radiation therapy". Case Reports. 2014 (oct14 1): bcr2014205240–bcr2014205240. doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-205240. ISSN 1757-790X.
  101. Lynch, Henry T.; Deters, Carolyn A.; Hogg, David; Lynch, Jane F.; Kinarsky, Yulia; Gatalica, Zoran (2003). "Familial sarcoma". Cancer. 98 (9): 1947–1957. doi:10.1002/cncr.11743. ISSN 0008-543X.
  102. Yu, C.-L.; Tucker, M. A.; Abramson, D. H.; Furukawa, K.; Seddon, J. M.; Stovall, M.; Fraumeni, J. F.; Kleinerman, R. A. (2009). "Cause-Specific Mortality in Long-Term Survivors of Retinoblastoma". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 101 (8): 581–591. doi:10.1093/jnci/djp046. ISSN 0027-8874.
  103. Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Folpe, Andrew L.; Giannini, Caterina; Perry, Arie (2012). "Pathology of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: diagnostic overview and update on selected diagnostic problems". Acta Neuropathologica. 123 (3): 295–319. doi:10.1007/s00401-012-0954-z. ISSN 0001-6322.
  104. Choi, Kwangmin; Komurov, Kakajan; Fletcher, Jonathan S.; Jousma, Edwin; Cancelas, Jose A.; Wu, Jianqiang; Ratner, Nancy (2017). "An inflammatory gene signature distinguishes neurofibroma Schwann cells and macrophages from cells in the normal peripheral nervous system". Scientific Reports. 7 (1). doi:10.1038/srep43315. ISSN 2045-2322.
  105. Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C.; Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Chen, Zhiguo; Mo, Juan; Tchegnon, Edem; Wang, Yong; Clapp, D. Wade; Le, Lu Q. (2018). "Contributions of inflammation and tumor microenvironment to neurofibroma tumorigenesis". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 128 (7): 2848–2861. doi:10.1172/JCI99424. ISSN 0021-9738.
  106. 106.0 106.1 Staser, K.; Yang, F.-C.; Clapp, D. W. (2010). "Mast cells and the neurofibroma microenvironment". Blood. 116 (2): 157–164. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-09-242875. ISSN 0006-4971.
  107. Muir, David; Neubauer, Debbie; Lim, Ingrid T.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Wallace, Margaret R. (2001). "Tumorigenic Properties of Neurofibromin-Deficient Neurofibroma Schwann Cells". The American Journal of Pathology. 158 (2): 501–513. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63992-2. ISSN 0002-9440.
  108. Wilkinson, Lana M.; Manson, David; Smith, Charles R. (2004). "Best Cases from the AFIP". RadioGraphics. 24 (suppl_1): S237–S242. doi:10.1148/rg.24si035170. ISSN 0271-5333.
  109. Bernthal, Nicholas; Jones, Kevin; Monument, Michael; Liu, Ting; Viskochil, David; Randall, R. (2013). "Lost in Translation: Ambiguity in Nerve Sheath Tumor Nomenclature and Its Resultant Treatment Effect". Cancers. 5 (4): 519–528. doi:10.3390/cancers5020519. ISSN 2072-6694.
  110. Mautner, V. F.; Friedrich, R. E.; von Deimling, A.; Hagel, C.; Korf, B.; Knöfel, M. T.; Wenzel, R.; Fünsterer, C. (2003). "Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: MRI supports the diagnosis of malignant plexiform neurofibroma". Neuroradiology. 45 (9): 618–625. doi:10.1007/s00234-003-0964-6. ISSN 0028-3940.
  111. Shen, M H; Harper, P S; Upadhyaya, M (1996). "Molecular genetics of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)". Journal of Medical Genetics. 33 (1): 2–17. doi:10.1136/jmg.33.1.2. ISSN 1468-6244.
  112. Rubin, Joshua B.; Gutmann, David H. (2005). "Neurofibromatosis type 1 — a model for nervous system tumour formation?". Nature Reviews Cancer. 5 (7): 557–564. doi:10.1038/nrc1653. ISSN 1474-175X.
  113. Sailon AM, Cappuccino G, Hameed M, Fleegler EJ (2008). "Nodular fasciitis of the hand over the metacarpophalangeal joint: a case report". Eplasty. 8: e38. PMC 2491338. PMID 18725954.
  114. Emori, M; Shimizu, J; Murahashi, Y; Mizushima, E; Sugita, S; Hasegawa, T; Yamashita, T (2018). "Nodular fasciitis involving the palm". The Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 100 (5): e128–e131. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2018.0061. ISSN 0035-8843.
  115. Kubota, Kensuke; Okada, Seiji; Maeda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Akio; Harimaya, Katsumi; Saiwai, Hirokazu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Oda, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Yukihide (2012). "Extradural Nodular Fasciitis Arising in the Spinal Canal". Spine. 37 (2): E133–E137. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e318224568a. ISSN 0362-2436.
  116. Plaza JA, Mayerson J, Wakely PE (2005). "Nodular fasciitis of the hand: a potential diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration cytopathology". Am J Clin Pathol. 123 (3): 388–93. doi:10.1309/PWD0-HB51-1L3V-R56W. PMID 15716235.
  117. Wagner LM, Gelfand MJ, Laor T, Ryckman FC, Al-Ghawi H, Bove KE (2011). "A welcome surprise: nodular fasciitis presenting as soft tissue sarcoma". J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 33 (4): 316–9. doi:10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181e88649. PMID 20975584.
  118. Grobmyer SR, Knapik JA, Foss RM, Copeland EM, Hochwald SN (2009). "Nodular fasciitis: differential considerations and current management strategies". Am Surg. 75 (7): 610–4. PMID 19655607.
  119. Yamamoto H, Yamada N, Yamada I, Hashikawa K, Kagimoto K, Ookubo M; et al. (1998). "[A case of nodular fasciitis of the chest wall]". Kyobu Geka. 51 (3): 246–9. PMID 9528235.
  120. Chiarini L, Lo Russo L, Figurelli S, Procacci P, Rubini C, Lo Muzio L (2008). "Nodular fasciitis of the face: aesthetic considerations". Aesthetic Plast Surg. 32 (3): 560–2. doi:10.1007/s00266-008-9136-8. PMID 18330617.
  121. Oliveira AM, Chou MM (2014). "USP6-induced neoplasms: the biologic spectrum of aneurysmal bone cyst and nodular fasciitis". Hum Pathol. 45 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2013.03.005. PMID 23769422.
  122. Erickson-Johnson MR, Chou MM, Evers BR, Roth CW, Seys AR, Jin L; et al. (2011). "Nodular fasciitis: a novel model of transient neoplasia induced by MYH9-USP6 gene fusion". Lab Invest. 91 (10): 1427–33. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2011.118. PMID 21826056.
  123. . doi:10.4197/Med. 17-3.1 Check |doi= value (help). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  124. Russell SB, Russell JD, Trupin KM, Gayden AE, Opalenik SR, Nanney LB; et al. (2010). "Epigenetically altered wound healing in keloid fibroblasts". J Invest Dermatol. 130 (10): 2489–96. doi:10.1038/jid.2010.162. PMC 2939920. PMID 20555348.
  125. Smith JC, Boone BE, Opalenik SR, Williams SM, Russell SB (2008). "Gene profiling of keloid fibroblasts shows altered expression in multiple fibrosis-associated pathways". J Invest Dermatol. 128 (5): 1298–310. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5701149. PMC 2933038. PMID 17989729.
  126. Huang, Chenyu; Murphy, George F.; Akaishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Rei (2013). "Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open. 1 (4): e25. doi:10.1097/GOX.0b013e31829c4597. ISSN 2169-7574.
  127. Smoll NR (2012). "Relative survival of childhood and adult medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs)". Cancer. 118 (5): 1313–22. doi:10.1002/cncr.26387. PMID 21837678.
  128. Eibl RH, Kleihues P, Jat PS, Wiestler OD (1994). "A model for primitive neuroectodermal tumors in transgenic neural transplants harboring the SV40 large T antigen". Am J Pathol. 144 (3): 556–64. PMC 1887088. PMID 8129041.
  129. Ohgaki H, Eibl RH, Wiestler OD, Yasargil MG, Newcomb EW, Kleihues P (1991). "p53 mutations in nonastrocytic human brain tumors". Cancer Res. 51 (22): 6202–5. PMID 1933879.

Linked-in.jpg