Plasma cell disorder

(Redirected from Plasma cell neoplasm)
Jump to: navigation, search


Plasma cell disorders

Overview

Classification

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
Malignant monoclonal gammopathies
Multiple myeloma
Malignant lymphoproliferative disorders
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Heavy-chain diseases
Cryoglobulinemia
Primary amyloidosis

Differentiating Plasma Cell Disorder

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Nazia Fuad M.D., Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.[2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Plasma cell dyscrasia

Overview

Plasma cell disorders are a diverse type of blood disorders characterized by proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells that produces a homogeneous monoclonal (M) protein. These monoclonal paraprotein are seen in the serum or urine. Monoclonal plasma cells are present in the bone marrow or, rarely, in other tissues. Plasma cell disorders include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myeloma (MM), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), lymphoproliferative disorders, smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM); solitary or extramedullary plasmacytoma, amyloidosis, and POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and skin changes). These disorders have been defined by the International Myeloma Working Group in 2006.

Classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Plasma cell disorder
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Primary amyloidosis
 
Malignant monoclonal gammopathy
 
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
 
 
 
Heavy chain diseases (HCD)
 
Cryoglobulinemia
 
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Multiple myeloma
 
 
Malignant lymphoproliferative disorders
 
γHCD
 
αHCD
 
μHCD
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benign
(IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM, and,
rarely, free light chains)
 
Associated neoplasms
or other diseases not known to
produce monoclonal proteins
 
Biclonal and triclonal
gammopathies
 
Idiopathic
(Bence Jones
proteinuria)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
 
Malignant lymphoma
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Symptomatic multiple myeloma
 
Smoldering multiple myeloma
 
Plasma-cell leukemia
 
Non-secretory myeloma
 
IgD myeloma
 
Osteosclerotic myeloma
 
Solitary plasmacytoma of bone
 
Extramedullary plasmacytoma
 

Differential Diagnosis

Disease IgM IgG IgA IgE IgD Monoclonal Ig level SFLC Bone marrow plasma cells Other criteria
IgM MGUS + < 3gm/dl N/A <10%
  • No end-organ damage
Non igM MGUS + + < 3gm/dl N/A <10%
  • No end-organ damage
Smoldering MM + + > 3gm/dl N/A 10-60%
  • No myeloma-defining event
  • No CRAB features
Light chain MGUS <500 mg/24 hrs (urine) Free kappa or lambda light chain
Abnormal ratio (<0.26 or >1.65)
Increase in involved light chain concentration
<10%
  • No end-organ damage
Active symptomatic Multiple myeloma + + + + >3gm/dl >100 >60%
  • ≥1 myeloma-defining event
  • CRAB features
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia + Variable N/A >10%
Solitary Plasmacytoma + <3mg/dl Abnormal in 47% cases Normal
Primary amyloidosis <3md/dl Light chains of immunoglobulines <10%
  • Myeloma defining events: >60% clonal plasma cells on B.M exam; serum involved: uninvolved FLC ratio >100; >1 focal lesion on MRI >5mm
  • CRAB features: elevated calcium >11mg/dl, renal insufficiency, anemia Hb <10 g/dL , bone disease ≥1 lytic lesions on skeletal radiography, CT, or PET-CT , SFLC: serum free light chains, kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chains.
  • The normal κ:λ ratio is 0.26 to 1.65 (17,18). A κ:λ ratio of <0.26 strongly suggests the presence of a of plasma cells that are producing clonal λ free light chains. Ratio >1.65 suggests production of clonal κ free light chains.

Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS)

For more information about monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance click here.

Malignant monoclonal gammopathies

Multiple myeloma

Symptomatic multiple myeloma

  • Patients with active multiple myeloma usually require treatment to prevent progression of disease which can lead to death.

Smoldering multiple myeloma

  • Patients with smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma are managed by observation and undergoing follow up tests every 3 to 6 months.
  • There is high risk of developing active multiple myeloma.

Plasma-cell leukemia

Non-secretory myeloma

IgD myeloma

  • IgD myeloma mostly affect people of younger age.

Osteosclerotic myeloma

  • It is a rare disorder affecting multiple systems of the body.[6]

Solitary plasmacytoma of bone

Extramedullary plasmacytoma

For more information about multiple myeloma, click here.

Malignant lymphoproliferative disorders

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

For more information about Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, click here.

Malignant lymphoma

For more information about malignant lymphoma, click here.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

For more information about chronic lymphocytic leukemia, click here

Heavy-chain diseases (HCD)

γHCD

αHCD

μHCD

Cryoglobulinemia

For more information on cryoglobulinemia, click here.

Primary amyloidosis

For more information on primary amyloidosis, click here.

References

  1. Jego G, Bataille R, Geffroy-Luseau A, Descamps G, Pellat-Deceunynck C (June 2006). "Pathogen-associated molecular patterns are growth and survival factors for human myeloma cells through Toll-like receptors". Leukemia. 20 (6): 1130–7. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2404226. PMID 16628189.
  2. Dinarello CA (February 2009). "Targeting the pathogenic role of interleukin 1{beta} in the progression of smoldering/indolent myeloma to active disease". Mayo Clin. Proc. 84 (2): 105–7. doi:10.4065/84.2.105. PMC 2664579. PMID 19181642.
  3. Merlini G, Palladini G (2012). "Differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2012: 595–603. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2012.1.595. PMID 23233640.
  4. Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Zagouri, Flora; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Tseliou, Melina; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Psaltopoulou, Theodora (2015). "Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses". Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia. 15 (10): 563–577.e3. doi:10.1016/j.clml.2015.06.003. ISSN 2152-2650.
  5. Rajkumar SV (July 2016). "Multiple myeloma: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management". Am. J. Hematol. 91 (7): 719–34. doi:10.1002/ajh.24402. PMC 5291298. PMID 27291302.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Rajkumar, S. Vincent (2016). "Multiple myeloma: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management". American Journal of Hematology. 91 (7): 719–734. doi:10.1002/ajh.24402. ISSN 0361-8609.
  7. Caers, J.; Paiva, B.; Zamagni, E.; Leleu, X.; Bladé, J.; Kristinsson, S. Y.; Touzeau, C.; Abildgaard, N.; Terpos, E.; Heusschen, R.; Ocio, E.; Delforge, M.; Sezer, O.; Beksac, M.; Ludwig, H.; Merlini, G.; Moreau, P.; Zweegman, S.; Engelhardt, M.; Rosiñol, L. (2018). "Diagnosis, treatment, and response assessment in solitary plasmacytoma: updated recommendations from a European Expert Panel". Journal of Hematology & Oncology. 11 (1). doi:10.1186/s13045-017-0549-1. ISSN 1756-8722.
  8. Braggio E, Philipsborn C, Novak A, Hodge L, Ansell S, Fonseca R (September 2012). "Molecular pathogenesis of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia". Haematologica. 97 (9): 1281–90. doi:10.3324/haematol.2012.068478. PMC 3436227. PMID 22773606.
  9. Pathology and Genetics of Haemo (World Health Organization Classification of Tumours S.). Oxford Univ Pr. ISBN 92-832-2411-6.
  10. Hallek, Michael (2015). "Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: 2015 Update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment". American Journal of Hematology. 90 (5): 446–460. doi:10.1002/ajh.23979. ISSN 0361-8609.
  11. Munshi, Nikhil C.; Cabot, Richard C.; Harris, Nancy Lee; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Cort, Alice M.; Ebeling, Sally H.; Peters, Christine C.; Digumarthy, Subba; Rahemtullah, Aliyah (2008). "Case 13-2008". New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (17): 1838–1848. doi:10.1056/NEJMcpc0800959. ISSN 0028-4793.
  12. Scotto G, Cibelli DC, Saracino A, Prato R, Palumbo E, Fazio V; et al. (2006). "Cryoglobulinemia in subjects with HCV infection alone, HIV infection and HCV/HIV coinfection". J Infect. 52 (4): 294–9. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2005.05.025. PMID 16026843.
  13. Suszek D, Majdan M (2018). "[Cryoglobulins and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis]". Wiad Lek. 71 (1 pt 1): 59–63. PMID 29558353.
  14. Blank N, Lorenz HM (2016). "[Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis]". Z Rheumatol. 75 (3): 303–15. doi:10.1007/s00393-016-0076-4. PMID 27034078.
  15. Ramos-Casals M, Trejo O, García-Carrasco M, Cervera R, Font J (2000). "Mixed cryoglobulinemia: new concepts". Lupus. 9 (2): 83–91. doi:10.1191/096120300678828127. PMID 10787003.
  16. Gertz MA (2004). "The classification and typing of amyloid deposits". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 121 (6): 787–9. doi:10.1309/TR4L-GLVR-JKAM-V5QT. PMID 15198347. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  17. "Amyloidosis Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, and Treatment on MedicineNet.com".

Linked-in.jpg