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RefSeq (mRNA)



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CD133 antigen, also known as prominin-1, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene.[1][2] It is a member of pentaspan transmembrane glycoproteins, which specifically localize to cellular protrusions. When embedded in the cell membrane, the membrane topology of prominin-1 is such that the N-terminus extends into the extracellular space and the C-terminus resides in the intracellular compartment. The protein consists of five transmembrane segments, with the first and second segments and the third and fourth segments connected by intracellular loops while the second and third as well as fourth and fifth transmembrane segments are connected by extracellular loops.[3] While the precise function of CD133 remains unknown, it has been proposed that it acts as an organizer of cell membrane topology.[4]

Tissue distribution

CD133 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells,[5] endothelial progenitor cells,[6] glioblastoma, neuronal and glial stem cells,[7] various pediatric brain tumors,[8] as well as adult kidney, mammary glands, trachea, salivary glands, uterus, placenta, digestive tract, testes, and some other cell types.[9][10][11]

Clinical significance

Today CD133 is the most commonly used marker for isolation of cancer stem cell (CSC) population from different tumors, mainly from various gliomas and carcinomas.[12] Initial studies that showed ability of CD133-positive population to efficiently propagate tumor when injected into immune-compromised mice firstly were performed on brain tumors.[13][8][14][15] However, subsequent studies have indicated the difficulty in isolating pure CSC populations.[16] CD133+ melanoma cells are considered a subpopulation of CSC and play a critical role in recurrence.[17] Moreover, CD133+ melanoma cells are immunogenic and can be used as an antimelanoma vaccination. In mice the vaccination with CD133+ melanoma cells mediated strong anti-tumor activity that resulted in the eradication of parental melanoma cells.[18] In addition, it has also been shown that CD133+ melanoma cells preferentially express the RNA helicase DDX3X . As DDX3X also is an immunogenic protein, the same anti-melanoma vaccination strategy can be employed to give therapeutic antitumor immunity in mice.[19]

See also


  1. Yin AH, Miraglia S, Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G, Ogawa M, Leary AG, Olweus J, Kearney J, Buck DW (December 1997). "AC133, a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells". Blood. 90 (12): 5002–12. PMID 9389720.
  2. Corbeil D, Fargeas CA, Huttner WB (July 2001). "Rat prominin, like its mouse and human orthologues, is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 285 (4): 939–44. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5271. PMID 11467842.
  3. Corbeil D, Karbanová J, Fargeas CA, Jászai J (2012-11-05). "Prominin-1 (CD133): Molecular and Cellular Features Across Species". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 777: 3–24. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5894-4_1. ISBN 9781461458937. PMID 23161072.
  4. Irollo E, Pirozzi G (September 2013). "CD133: to be or not to be, is this the real question?". American Journal of Translational Research. 5 (6): 563–81. PMC 3786264. PMID 24093054.
  5. Horn PA, Tesch H, Staib P, Kube D, Diehl V, Voliotis D (February 1999). "Expression of AC133, a novel hematopoietic precursor antigen, on acute myeloid leukemia cells". Blood. 93 (4): 1435–7. PMID 10075457.
  6. Corbeil D, Röper K, Hellwig A, Tavian M, Miraglia S, Watt SM, Simmons PJ, Peault B, Buck DW, Huttner WB (February 2000). "The human AC133 hematopoietic stem cell antigen is also expressed in epithelial cells and targeted to plasma membrane protrusions". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (8): 5512–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.8.5512. PMID 10681530.
  7. Sanai N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Berger MS (August 2005). "Neural stem cells and the origin of gliomas". The New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (8): 811–22. doi:10.1056/NEJMra043666. PMID 16120861.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J, Dirks PB (September 2003). "Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors". Cancer Research. 63 (18): 5821–8. PMID 14522905.
  9. Mizrak D, Brittan M, Alison M (January 2008). "CD133: molecule of the moment". The Journal of Pathology. 214 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1002/path.2283. PMID 18067118.
  10. Shmelkov SV, St Clair R, Lyden D, Rafii S (April 2005). "AC133/CD133/Prominin-1". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 37 (4): 715–9. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.08.010. PMID 15694831.
  11. Dowland SN, Madawala RJ, Poon CE, Lindsay LA, Murphy CR (June 2017). "Prominin-1 glycosylation changes throughout early pregnancy in uterine epithelial cells under the influence of maternal ovarian hormones". Reproduction, Fertility, and Development. 29 (6): 1194–1208. doi:10.1071/RD15432. PMID 27166505.
  12. Kim YS, Kaidina AM, Chiang JH, Yarygin KN, Lupatov AY (2017). "Cancer stem cell molecular markers verified in vivo". Biochem. Moscow Suppl. Ser. B. 11 (1): 43–54. doi:10.1134/S1990750817010036.
  13. Lai IC, Shih PH, Yao CJ, Yeh CT, Wang-Peng J, Lui TN, Chuang SE, Hu TS, Lai TY, Lai GM (2015). "Elimination of cancer stem-like cells and potentiation of temozolomide sensitivity by Honokiol in glioblastoma multiforme cells". PLOS One. 10 (3): e0114830. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114830. PMID 25763821.
  14. Hemmati HD, Nakano I, Lazareff JA, Masterman-Smith M, Geschwind DH, Bronner-Fraser M, Kornblum HI (December 2003). "Cancerous stem cells can arise from pediatric brain tumors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (25): 15178–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.2036535100. PMC 299944. PMID 14645703.
  15. Galli R, Binda E, Orfanelli U, Cipelletti B, Gritti A, De Vitis S, Fiocco R, Foroni C, Dimeco F, Vescovi A (October 2004). "Isolation and characterization of tumorigenic, stem-like neural precursors from human glioblastoma". Cancer Research. 64 (19): 7011–21. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1364. PMID 15466194.
  16. Wang J, Sakariassen PØ, Tsinkalovsky O, Immervoll H, Bøe SO, Svendsen A, Prestegarden L, Røsland G, Thorsen F, Stuhr L, Molven A, Bjerkvig R, Enger PØ (February 2008). "CD133 negative glioma cells form tumors in nude rats and give rise to CD133 positive cells". International Journal of Cancer. 122 (4): 761–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.23130. PMID 17955491.
  17. Monzani E, Facchetti F, Galmozzi E, Corsini E, Benetti A, Cavazzin C, Gritti A, Piccinini A, Porro D, Santinami M, Invernici G, Parati E, Alessandri G, La Porta CA (March 2007). "Melanoma contains CD133 and ABCG2 positive cells with enhanced tumourigenic potential". European Journal of Cancer. 43 (5): 935–46. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2007.01.017. PMID 17320377.
  18. Miyabayashi T, Kagamu H, Koshio J, Ichikawa K, Baba J, Watanabe S, Tanaka H, Tanaka J, Yoshizawa H, Nakata K, Narita I (November 2011). "Vaccination with CD133(+) melanoma induces specific Th17 and Th1 cell-mediated antitumor reactivity against parental tumor". Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 60 (11): 1597–608. doi:10.1007/s00262-011-1063-x. PMID 21691723.
  19. Koshio J, Kagamu H, Nozaki K, Saida Y, Tanaka T, Shoji S, Igarashi N, Miura S, Okajima M, Watanabe S, Yoshizawa H, Narita I (October 2013). "DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked is an immunogenic target of cancer stem cells". Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. 62 (10): 1619–28. doi:10.1007/s00262-013-1467-x. PMID 23974721.

Further reading

External links