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Toll-like receptor 4
Symbols TLR4 ; CD284; TOLL; hToll
External IDs Template:OMIM5 Template:MGI HomoloGene41317
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE TLR4 221060 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Template:GNF Ortholog box
Species Human Mouse
Entrez n/a n/a
Ensembl n/a n/a
UniProt n/a n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a n/a
Location (UCSC) n/a n/a
PubMed search n/a n/a

Toll-like receptor 4, also known as TLR4, is a human gene. TLR 4 is a toll-like receptor. It detects lipopolysaccharide on Gram-negative bacteria and is thus important in the activation of the innate immune system.

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta, and in myelomonocytic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It has been implicated in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with differences in LPS responsiveness. Also, several transcript variants of this gene have been found, but the protein coding potential of most of them is uncertain.[1]

Signaling pathway of toll-like receptors. Dashed grey lines represent unknown associations


  1. "Entrez Gene: TLR4 toll-like receptor 4".

Further reading

  • Lien E, Ingalls RR (2002). "Toll-like receptors". Crit. Care Med. 30 (1 Suppl): S1–11. PMID 11782555.
  • Raetz CR, Whitfield C (2002). "Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 71: 635–700. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.71.110601.135414. PMID 12045108.
  • Lin WJ, Yeh WC (2005). "Implication of Toll-like receptor and tumor necrosis factor alpha signaling in septic shock". Shock. 24 (3): 206–9. PMID 16135957.
  • Lorenz E (2007). "TLR2 and TLR4 expression during bacterial infections". Curr. Pharm. Des. 12 (32): 4185–93. PMID 17100621.
  • Stoll LL, Denning GM, Weintraub NL (2007). "Endotoxin, TLR4 signaling and vascular inflammation: potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease". Curr. Pharm. Des. 12 (32): 4229–45. PMID 17100625.
  • Rousseaux C, Desreumaux P (2007). "[The peroxisome-proliferator-activated gamma receptor and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (PPARgamma and IBD)]". J. Soc. Biol. 200 (2): 121–31. PMID 17151549.
  • Szabo G, Dolganiuc A, Dai Q, Pruett SB (2007). "TLR4, ethanol, and lipid rafts: a new mechanism of ethanol action with implications for other receptor-mediated effects". J. Immunol. 178 (3): 1243–9. PMID 17237368.

External links

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