Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
|PDB rendering based on 1ij9.|
|Available structures:, ,|
|RNA expression pattern|
Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, also known as VCAM1, is a human gene.
This gene is a member of the Ig superfamily and encodes a cell surface sialoglycoprotein expressed by cytokine-activated endothelium. This type I membrane protein mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and signal transduction, and may play a role in the development of artherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.
VCAM-1 promotes the adhesion of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Interestingly, certain melanoma cells can use VCAM-1 to adhere to the endothelium, and VCAM-1 may participate in monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic sites. As a result, VCAM-1 is a potential drug target.
Upregulation of VCAM-1 in endothelial cells by cytokines occurs as a result of increased gene transcription (e.g., in response to Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1, aka IL-1) and through stabilization of Messenger RNA (mNRA) (e.g., Interleukin-4, aka IL-4). The promoter region of the VCAM-1 gene contains functional tandem NF-kB (nuclear factor-kappa B) sites.
The sustained expression of VCAM-1 lasts over 24 hours. Primarily, VCAM-1 is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-1 or α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of integrins, and for integrin α4β7. VCAM-1 expression has also been observed in other cell types (e.g., smooth muscle cells).
- Yonekawa K, Harlan JM (2005). "Targeting leukocyte integrins in human diseases.". J. Leukoc. Biol. 77 (2): 129-40. doi:10.1189/jlb.0804460. PMID 15548573.
- Wu TC (2007). "The role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in tumor immune evasion.". Cancer Res. 67 (13): 6003-6. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1543. PMID 17616653.
Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation)
|1-50||CD1 (CD1a-c, CD1d) - CD2 - CD3 - CD4 - CD5 - CD8 - CD9 - CD10 - CD11 (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) - CD13 - CD14 - CD15 - CD16 - CD18 - CD19 - CD20 - CD21 - CD22 - CD23 - CD24 - CD25 - CD26 - CD27 - CD28 - CD29 - CD30 - CD31 - CD32 - CD33 - CD34 - CD35 - CD36 - CD37 -CD38 - CD40 - CD43 - CD44 - CD45 - CD46 - CD49 (CD49a, CD49b, CD49c, CD49d)|
|51-100||CD52 - CD53 - CD54 - CD55 - CD56 - CD58 - CD59 - CD61 - CD62 (CD62E, CD62L, CD62P) - CD63 - CD64 - CD66e - CD68 - CD70 - CD71 - CD72 - CD79 - CD80 - CD81 - CD82 - CD83 - CD86 - CD88 - CD89 - CD90 - CD94 - CD95 - CD97 - CD98|
|101-350||CD103 - CD106 - CD114 - CD116 - CD117 - CD118 - CD120 - CD122 - CD130 - CD131 - CD132 - CD133 - CD134 - CD135 - CD137 - CD138 - CD141 - CD142 - CD143 - CD146 - CD147 - CD151 - CD152 - CD153 - CD154 - CD155 - CD162 - CD164 - CD169 - CD184 - CD206 - CD209 - CD257 - CD278 - CD281 - CD282 - CD283 - CD304|
Membrane proteins: cell adhesion molecules
|IgSF||N-CAM (Myelin protein zero) - ICAM (1, 4) - VCAM-1 - PE-CAM - L1-CAM|
|Cadherins||Desmoglein - T-cadherin|
|Selectins||E-selectin - L-selectin - P-selectin|
|Integrins||LFA-1 - Integrin alphaXbeta2 - Macrophage-1 antigen - VLA-4 - Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (Note: integrins not always classified as CAMs)|
|Other||Carcinoembryonic antigen - CD22 - CD24 - CD44 - CD146 - CD164|
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