Toll-like receptor 2
|PDB rendering based on 1fyw.|
|Available structures:, ,|
|RNA expression pattern|
TLR-2 is a biomolecule, which plays a role in the human immune system. TLR-2 is a membrane protein, a receptor, which is expressed on the surface of certain cells and recognizes native or foreign substances, and passes on appropriate signals to the cell and/or the nervous system.
TLR-2 is a membrane receptor found at the surface of immune system cells that recognises many bacterial, fungal, viral and endogenous substances. Phagocytosis of bound materials takes place in endosome/phagosome and a cellular activation, so that the elements of the innate immune system take over such as macrophages, PMN and dendritic cells tasks of the nonspecific immune defense, B1a and form MZB first anti-bodies and uses in the process the specific anti-body formation. Here cytokine is involved e.g. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α) and different interleukins (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12). Before TLRs were discovered, some of the materials specified below were grouped under the term so-called "Moduline". By that rather Th1 appropriate cytokine pattern is seen in most experimental models an immune deviation this way, away of the Th2-expression. Conjugates are developed as vaccines or already used without a priori knowledge.
One only 2006 recognized characteristic is the expression of the TLR-2 on the Tregs (special form of the T-cells), which is brought equally to TCR determined proliferation and functional inactivity. Thereby, a disinhibition of the early inflammation phase and the specific anti-body formation is reached. After reduction of the exciter number many exciter-specific Tregs are present, which, now without TLR-2-Signal, become active and the specific like the inflammatory immune reaction to restrain (see also TGF beta, Interleukin 10). Older literature, which attributes a direct immune stimulation effect over TLR-2 to a given substance, must be interpreted under circumstances that the used TLR-2-knockouts has regularly quite few Tregs.
TLR-2 is expressed on microglia, Schwann cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, B-cells (B1a, MZB, B2), T-cells including regulatory T cells (CD4, CD25). TLR-2 is likewise in the epithelium of the bronchial tube and the alveoli.
|Lipoteichoic acid||Gram-positive bacteria|
|Peptidoglycan||Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria|
|atypical LPS||Leptospirosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis|
|MALP-2 and MALP-404 (lipoproteins)||Mycoplasma|
|OspA||Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)|
|Antigen mixtures||Propionibacterium acnes|
|Lipomannan||Mycobacterium: Mycobacterium tuberculosis|
|GPI anchor||Trypanosoma cruzi|
|Lipophosphoglycan (LPG)||Leishmania major|
|Glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)||Plasmodium falciparum|
|-||Malassezia (commensal yeast)|
|Antigen mixtures||Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans|
|hsp60, as peptide transporter and adjuvant for antigen presentation||-|
|-||Herpes simplex virus|
|-||Varicella zoster virus|
- Aderem A, Ulevitch RJ (2000). "Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response.". Nature 406 (6797): 782-7. doi:10.1038/35021228. PMID 10963608.
- Muzio M, Polentarutti N, Bosisio D, et al. (2001). "Toll-like receptor family and signalling pathway.". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28 (5): 563-6. PMID 11044375.
- Hallman M, Rämet M, Ezekowitz RA (2002). "Toll-like receptors as sensors of pathogens.". Pediatr. Res. 50 (3): 315-21. PMID 11518816.
- Dziarski R, Gupta D (2001). "Role of MD-2 in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated recognition of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and activation of chemokine genes.". J. Endotoxin Res. 6 (5): 401-5. PMID 11521063.
- Lien E, Ingalls RR (2002). "Toll-like receptors.". Crit. Care Med. 30 (1 Suppl): S1-11. PMID 11782555.
- Xu D, Komai-Koma M, Liew FY (2005). "Expression and function of Toll-like receptor on T cells.". Cell. Immunol. 233 (2): 85-9. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2005.04.019. PMID 15950961.
- Lorenz E (2007). "TLR2 and TLR4 expression during bacterial infections.". Curr. Pharm. Des. 12 (32): 4185-93. PMID 17100621.
Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation)
|1-50||CD1 (CD1a-c, CD1d) - CD2 - CD3 - CD4 - CD5 - CD8 - CD9 - CD10 - CD11 (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) - CD13 - CD14 - CD15 - CD16 - CD18 - CD19 - CD20 - CD21 - CD22 - CD23 - CD24 - CD25 - CD26 - CD27 - CD28 - CD29 - CD30 - CD31 - CD32 - CD33 - CD34 - CD35 - CD36 - CD37 -CD38 - CD40 - CD43 - CD44 - CD45 - CD46 - CD49 (CD49a, CD49b, CD49c, CD49d)|
|51-100||CD52 - CD53 - CD54 - CD55 - CD56 - CD58 - CD59 - CD61 - CD62 (CD62E, CD62L, CD62P) - CD63 - CD64 - CD66e - CD68 - CD70 - CD71 - CD72 - CD79 - CD80 - CD81 - CD82 - CD83 - CD86 - CD88 - CD89 - CD90 - CD94 - CD95 - CD97 - CD98|
|101-350||CD103 - CD106 - CD114 - CD116 - CD117 - CD118 - CD120 - CD122 - CD130 - CD131 - CD132 - CD133 - CD134 - CD135 - CD137 - CD138 - CD141 - CD142 - CD143 - CD146 - CD147 - CD151 - CD152 - CD153 - CD154 - CD155 - CD162 - CD164 - CD169 - CD184 - CD206 - CD209 - CD257 - CD278 - CD281 - CD282 - CD283 - CD304|
Transmembrane receptors: immune receptors
|Cytokine receptor||Type I: interleukin (IL-2, IL-3) - CSF (Erythropoietin, GM-CSF, G-CSF) - Glycoprotein 130/Oncostatin M - Leukemia inhibitory factor - common subunits (Common gamma chain, CSF2RB)|
Chemokine - TGF-beta - Tumor necrosis factor
|Pattern recognition/Toll-like||TLR 1 - TLR 2 - TLR 3 - TLR 4 - TLR 5 - TLR 6 - TLR 7 - TLR 8 - TLR 9 - TLR 10|
|Fc receptor||ε (FcεRI, FcεRII) - γ (FcγRI, FcγRII, FcγRIII) - α/μ (FcαRI, Fcα/μR) - Neonatal|
|Lymphocyte homing receptor||CD44 - L-selectin - VLA-4 - LFA-1|
|other||Antigen receptor (B-cell, T cell) - Complement - Formyl peptide - Immunophilins - Integrin - Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like - Scavenger|
There is no pharmaceutical or device industry support for this site and we need your viewer supported Donations | Editorial Board | Governance | Licensing | Disclaimers | Avoid Plagiarism | Policies