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|It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Glutamate dehydrogenase 1. (Discuss)|
glutamate dehydrogenase 1
|Locus||Chr. 10 q21.1-24.3|
glutamate dehydrogenase 2
|Locus||Chr. X q25|
Role in flow of nitrogen
Ammonia incorporation in animals occurs through the actions of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase. Glutamate plays the central role in mammalian nitrogen flow, serving as both a nitrogen donor and nitrogen acceptor.
Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase
In Humans the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is controlled through ADP-ribosilation, a covalent modification carried out by the gene sirt4. This regulation is relaxed in response to caloric restriction and low blood glucose. Under these curcumstances glutamate dehydrogenase activity is raised to increase the amount of α-Ketoglutarate that is produced. The product α-Ketoglutarate can be used to provide energy by being used in the citric acid cycle to ultimately produce ATP.
The control of GDH through ADP-ribosilation is particularly important in insulin producing β cells. Beta cells secrete insulin in response to an increase in the ATP:ADP ratio, and as amino acids are broken down by GDH into α-ketoglutarate, this ratio rises and more insulin is secreted. SIRT4 is necessary to regulate the metabolism of amino acids as a method of controlling insulin secretion and to regulate blood glucose levels.
CH-NH2 oxidoreductases (EC 1.4) - primarily amino acid oxidoreductases
|1.4.1 - NAD/NADP acceptor||Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1)|
|1.4.3 - oxygen acceptor||D-amino acid oxidase - Amine oxidase - Lysyl oxidase - Monoamine oxidase|
|1.4.4 - disulfide acceptor||Glycine decarboxylase complex|
|1.4.99 - other acceptors||D-amino acid dehydrogenase - Amine dehydrogenase|
Metabolism: Citric acid cycle enzymes
|Cycle||Citrate synthase - Aconitase - Isocitrate dehydrogenase - Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase - Succinyl CoA synthetase|
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) - Fumarase - Malate dehydrogenase
|Anaplerotic||to acetyl-CoA: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase)
to ketoglutaric acid: Glutamate dehydrogenaseoxaloacetate: Pyruvate carboxylase - Aspartate transaminase
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