Leucine

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Chemical structure of Leucine

Chemical structure of Leucine

Leucine

Systematic (IUPAC) name
(S)-2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 61-90-5
PubChem         6106
Chemical data
Formula C6H13NO2 
Molar mass 131.18 g/mol
SMILES CC(C)C[C@H](N)C(O)=O
Complete data

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Leucine (abbreviated as Leu or L)[1] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH(CH3)2. It is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesise it. Its codons are UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG. With a hydrocarbon side chain, leucine is classified as a hydrophobic amino acid.

Biosynthesis

As an essential amino acid, leucine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins. It is synthesized in plants and microorganisms via several steps starting from pyruvic acid. The initial part of the pathway also leads to valine. The intermediate α-ketovalerate is converted to α-isopropylmalate and then β-isopropylmalate, which is dehydrogenated to α-ketoisocaproate, which in the final step undergoes reductive amination. Enzymes involved in a typical leucine biosynthesis include[2]

See also

References

  1. IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & Terminology etc. Retrieved 2007-05-17. 
  2. Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. "Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry" 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York, 2000. ISBN 1-57259-153-6.

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<tr bgcolor="#ccccff"><td colspan="3" align="center">
v  d  e
Major families of biochemicals</td></tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="text-align: center;">Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Nucleotide sugars | Lipids | Terpenes | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides | Glycosides</td></tr><tr bgcolor="pink"><td style="white-space: nowrap; width: 10%; color: pink;">Analogues of nucleic acids:</td><td align="center">The 20 Common Amino Acids ("dp" = data page)</td><td style="white-space: nowrap; width: 10%; color: pink;">Analogues of nucleic acids:</td></tr>
Alanine (dp) | Arginine (dp) | Asparagine (dp) | Aspartic acid (dp) | Cysteine (dp) | Glutamic acid (dp) | Glutamine (dp) | Glycine (dp) | Histidine (dp) | Isoleucine (dp) | Leucine (dp) | Lysine (dp) | Methionine (dp) | Phenylalanine (dp) | Proline (dp) | Serine (dp) | Threonine (dp) | Tryptophan (dp) | Tyrosine (dp) | Valine (dp)

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