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|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
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Metabolism in animals
There are several different ways in which it is formed:
- It is formed as a product of beta-oxidation of odd-chain fatty acids, which occur in meat of ruminant animals.
- It is a product of alpha-ketobutyric acid, which in turn is a product of digestion of threonine and methionine.
A defect in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzyme results in methylmalonic aciduria, a dangerous disorder that causes a lowering of blood pH.
Metabolism in plants and insects
In plants and insects propionyl-CoA is metabolized to acetate in a very different way, similar to beta oxidation.
Not all details of this pathway have been worked out, but it appears to involve formation of acrylyl-CoA, then 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA.
This is metabolized with loss of carbon 1 of 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA as carbon dioxide, while carbon 3 becomes carbon 1 of acetate.
- Halarnkar P, Blomquist G (1989). "Comparative aspects of propionate metabolism". Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B. 92 (2): 227–31. PMID 2647392.