Congestive heart failure causes

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Congestive Heart Failure Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Systolic Dysfunction
Diastolic Dysfunction


Differentiating Congestive heart failure from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Clinical Assessment

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray

Cardiac MRI


Exercise Stress Test

Myocardial Viability Studies

Cardiac Catheterization

Other Imaging Studies

Other Diagnostic Studies


Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring

Medical Therapy:

Acute Pharmacotherapy
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFpEF
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFrEF
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Aldosterone Antagonists
Beta Blockers
Ca Channel Blockers
Positive Inotropics
Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Nutritional Supplements
Hormonal Therapies
Drugs to Avoid
Drug Interactions
Treatment of underlying causes
Associated conditions

Exercise Training

Surgical Therapy:

Biventricular Pacing or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
Implantation of Intracardiac Defibrillator
Cardiac Surgery
Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs)
Cardiac Transplantation

ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations

Initial and Serial Evaluation of the HF Patient
Hospitalized Patient
Patients With a Prior MI
Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention
Surgical/Percutaneous/Transcather Interventional Treatments of HF
Patients at high risk for developing heart failure (Stage A)
Patients with cardiac structural abnormalities or remodeling who have not developed heart failure symptoms (Stage B)
Patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure (Stage C)
Patients with refractory end-stage heart failure (Stage D)
Coordinating Care for Patients With Chronic HF
Quality Metrics/Performance Measures

Implementation of Practice Guidelines

Congestive heart failure end-of-life considerations

Specific Groups:

Special Populations
Patients who have concomitant disorders
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Patient with CHF
NSTEMI with Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock

Congestive heart failure causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Congestive heart failure causes

CDC on Congestive heart failure causes

Congestive heart failure causes in the news

Blogs on Congestive heart failure causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Congestive heart failure causes

Risk calculators and risk factors for Congestive heart failure causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


There are several classification schemes used to characterize the pathophysiology of heart failure as either systolic vs diastolic; left vs right; or low output vs high output. The anatomic structure underlying the disease process is often characterized as well. The causes of heart failure are also often characterized by their chronicity (acute/decompensated or chronic).


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated. Congestive heart failure is life threatening and should be treated as such irrespective of the underlying cause.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis, arrhythmias, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, arteriovenous fistula, atrial fibrillation, atrial septal defect, cardiac amyloidosis, cardiac aneurysm, congenital heart disease, constrictive pericarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, Eisenmenger syndrome, endocarditis, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interferon gamma, ischemic heart disease, malignant hypertension, mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis, myocardial infarction, oxaprozin, patent ductus arteriosus, pericardial effusion, pericardial tamponade, pericarditis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, pertuzumab, restrictive cardiomyopathy, rheumatic carditis, rupture of the papillary muscles, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, tricuspid insufficiency, valvular heart disease, ventricular aneurysm, ventricular septal defect
Chemical/Poisoning Ethylene glycol
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Ado-trastuzumab emtansine, bicalutamide,bicisate dihydrochloride, carfilzomib, certolizumab pegol, cidofovir, cinacalcet, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone, diclofenac (patch), disulfiram,dornase alfa, doxorubicin hydrochloride, epirubicin , epoetin alfa, felbamate, ferumoxytol, flurbiprofen, goserelin, hydroxyethyl starch, ibuprofen lysine, idarubicin hydrochloride, idursulfase, imatinib, ixabepilone, levothyroxine, mefenamic acid, meloxicam, meropenem, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta, methylprednisolone, metoclopramide, mitomycin, mitoxantrone, muromonab-CD3, nilutamide, nitroglycerin,oprelvekin, oxcarbazepine, Peginterferon Beta-1a,pergolide, phenylbutazone, piroxicam, ponatinib hydrochloride, pramipexole, prednisone, prednisolone, rubidium Rb 82, sorafenib, sulindac, sunitinib malate, tolmetin, trastuzumab, valdecoxib, vandetanib
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis
Environmental Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, silicosis
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Atrial septal defect, congenital heart disease, Friedreich's ataxia, glycogen storage disease, Marfan's syndrome, Mulibrey nanism syndrome, muscular dystrophy, Noonan syndrome, ventricular septal defect
Hematologic Severe anemia
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Endocarditis, human immunodeficiency virus, Lyme disease, pericarditis, rheumatic carditis, rheumatic fever, sepsis, viral myocarditis, Whipple's disease
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Ascorbic acid deficiency, beriberi, carnitine deficiency, glycogen storage disease, hemochromatosis, metabolic acidosis, Paget's disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Pancoast tumor
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Alcohol, atenolol, dronedarone, imatinib mesylate, propranolol, verapamil
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, cor pulmonale, hypoxia, Pickwickian syndrome, pulmonary artery stenosis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary valve stenosis, pulmonary vein stenosis, pulmonic regurgitation, silicosis
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum/Immune/Allergy Cardiac amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order


Template:WikiDoc Sources