Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices

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Congestive Heart Failure Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Systolic Dysfunction
Diastolic Dysfunction


Differentiating Congestive heart failure from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Clinical Assessment

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray

Cardiac MRI


Exercise Stress Test

Myocardial Viability Studies

Cardiac Catheterization

Other Imaging Studies

Other Diagnostic Studies


Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring

Medical Therapy:

Acute Pharmacotherapy
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFpEF
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFrEF
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Aldosterone Antagonists
Beta Blockers
Ca Channel Blockers
Positive Inotropics
Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Nutritional Supplements
Hormonal Therapies
Drugs to Avoid
Drug Interactions
Treatment of underlying causes
Associated conditions

Exercise Training

Surgical Therapy:

Biventricular Pacing or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
Implantation of Intracardiac Defibrillator
Cardiac Surgery
Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs)
Cardiac Transplantation

ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations

Initial and Serial Evaluation of the HF Patient
Hospitalized Patient
Patients With a Prior MI
Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention
Surgical/Percutaneous/Transcather Interventional Treatments of HF
Patients at high risk for developing heart failure (Stage A)
Patients with cardiac structural abnormalities or remodeling who have not developed heart failure symptoms (Stage B)
Patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure (Stage C)
Patients with refractory end-stage heart failure (Stage D)
Coordinating Care for Patients With Chronic HF
Quality Metrics/Performance Measures

Implementation of Practice Guidelines

Congestive heart failure end-of-life considerations

Specific Groups:

Special Populations
Patients who have concomitant disorders
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Patient with CHF
NSTEMI with Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock

Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices On the Web

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NICE Guidance

FDA on Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices

CDC on Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices

Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices in the news

Blogs on Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices

Directions to Hospitals Treating Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices

Risk calculators and risk factors for Congestive heart failure left ventricular assist devices

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Edzel Lorraine Co, DMD, MD[2]


Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are temporary implantable cardiac devices to sustain a patient (i.e. "bridge" the patient) until cardiac transplantation can be performed. The use of LVADs as a "destination" device (the final treatment) rather than as a bridge is investigational at present.

Wearables and Remote Monitoring (Including Telemonitoring and Device Monitoring) 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Heart Failure Guideline (DO NOT EDIT) [1]

Class IIb
"1. In selected adult patients with NYHA class III HF and history of a HF hospitalization in the past year or elevated natriuretic peptide levels, on maximally tolerated stable doses of GDMT with optimal device therapy, the usefulness of wireless monitoring of PA pressure by an implanted hemodynamic monitor to reduce the risk of subsequent HF hospitalization is uncertain. [2][3][4][5](Level of Evidence: B-R) "
Value Statement: Uncertain Value
"1. In patients with NYHA class III HF with a HF hospitalization within the previous year, wireless monitoring of the PA pressure by an implanted hemodynamic monitor provides uncertain value. [5][6][7][8](Level of Evidence: B-NR) "


  1. Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM; et al. (2022). "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 145 (18): e876–e894. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001062. PMID 35363500 Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. Abraham WT, Adamson PB, Bourge RC, Aaron MF, Costanzo MR, Stevenson LW; et al. (2011). "Wireless pulmonary artery haemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet. 377 (9766): 658–66. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60101-3. PMID 21315441.
  3. Adamson PB, Abraham WT, Bourge RC, Costanzo MR, Hasan A, Yadav C; et al. (2014). "Wireless pulmonary artery pressure monitoring guides management to reduce decompensation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". Circ Heart Fail. 7 (6): 935–44. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.001229. PMID 25286913.
  4. Givertz MM, Stevenson LW, Costanzo MR, Bourge RC, Bauman JG, Ginn G; et al. (2017). "Pulmonary Artery Pressure-Guided Management of Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction". J Am Coll Cardiol. 70 (15): 1875–1886. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.08.010. PMID 28982501.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Lindenfeld J, Zile MR, Desai AS, Bhatt K, Ducharme A, Horstmanshof D; et al. (2021). "Haemodynamic-guided management of heart failure (GUIDE-HF): a randomised controlled trial". Lancet. 398 (10304): 991–1001. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01754-2. PMID 34461042 Check |pmid= value (help).
  6. Martinson M, Bharmi R, Dalal N, Abraham WT, Adamson PB (2017). "Pulmonary artery pressure-guided heart failure management: US cost-effectiveness analyses using the results of the CHAMPION clinical trial". Eur J Heart Fail. 19 (5): 652–660. doi:10.1002/ejhf.642. PMC 5434920. PMID 27647784.
  7. Sandhu AT, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Owens DK, Turakhia MP, Kaiser DW, Heidenreich PA (2016). "Cost-Effectiveness of Implantable Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring in Chronic Heart Failure". JACC Heart Fail. 4 (5): 368–75. doi:10.1016/j.jchf.2015.12.015. PMC 4851610. PMID 26874380.
  8. Schmier JK, Ong KL, Fonarow GC (2017). "Cost-Effectiveness of Remote Cardiac Monitoring With the CardioMEMS Heart Failure System". Clin Cardiol. 40 (7): 430–436. doi:10.1002/clc.22696. PMC 6490396. PMID 28272808.

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