Congestive heart failure risk factors
|Congestive Heart Failure Microchapters|
ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations
Congestive heart failure risk factors On the Web
Several risk factors may predispose to heart failure. These risk factors can be demographic, genetic, associated with lifestyle or medications.
- Demographic factors
- Age (increased)
- Low socioeconomic status
- Lifestyle-related factors
- Echocardiographic factors
- Pharmacological factors
- Homocysteine: Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with almost a 75% increase in risk for heart failure development.
- Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha): After adjustment for other risk factors, every tertile increment in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels was associated with a 60% increase in risk of heart failure. TNF-alpha has several negative pleiotropic effects and also negative inotropic properties that may be responsible for excessive heart failure risk. TNF-alpha is also associated with progression of heart failure.
- Interleukin-6: IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which associated with an excessive risk of development of heart failure.
- C-reactive protein
- Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
- Natriuretic peptides
- Genetic risk factors
Risk Factors Associated with Heart Failure Progression and Outcomes
- Exercise Tolerance
- Exercise duration
- Peak O2 consumption
- Anaerobic threshold 6-minute walk test
- Natriuretic factors
- Cytokines and others