Congestive heart failure risk factors

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Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Systolic Dysfunction
Diastolic Dysfunction
HFpEF
HFrEF

Causes

Differentiating Congestive heart failure from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Clinical Assessment

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

Chest X Ray

Cardiac MRI

Echocardiography

Exercise Stress Test

Myocardial Viability Studies

Cardiac Catheterization

Other Imaging Studies

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring

Medical Therapy:

Summary
Acute Pharmacotherapy
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFpEF
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFrEF
Diuretics
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Aldosterone Antagonists
Beta Blockers
Ca Channel Blockers
Nitrates
Hydralazine
Positive Inotropics
Anticoagulants
Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Nutritional Supplements
Hormonal Therapies
Drugs to Avoid
Drug Interactions
Treatment of underlying causes
Associated conditions

Exercise Training

Surgical Therapy:

Biventricular Pacing or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
Implantation of Intracardiac Defibrillator
Ultrafiltration
Cardiac Surgery
Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs)
Cardiac Transplantation

ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations

Initial and Serial Evaluation of the HF Patient
Hospitalized Patient
Patients With a Prior MI
Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention
Surgical/Percutaneous/Transcather Interventional Treatments of HF
Patients at high risk for developing heart failure (Stage A)
Patients with cardiac structural abnormalities or remodeling who have not developed heart failure symptoms (Stage B)
Patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure (Stage C)
Patients with refractory end-stage heart failure (Stage D)
Coordinating Care for Patients With Chronic HF
Quality Metrics/Performance Measures

Implementation of Practice Guidelines

Congestive heart failure end-of-life considerations

Specific Groups:

Special Populations
Patients who have concomitant disorders
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Patient with CHF
NSTEMI with Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock

Congestive heart failure risk factors On the Web

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US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

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FDA on Congestive heart failure risk factors

CDC on Congestive heart failure risk factors

Congestive heart failure risk factors in the news

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Directions to Hospitals Treating Congestive heart failure risk factors

Risk calculators and risk factors for Congestive heart failure risk factors

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Saleh El Dassouki, M.D. [3]; Atif Mohammad, M.D.

Overview

Several risk factors may predispose to heart failure. These risk factors can be demographic, genetic, associated with lifestyle or medications.

Risk Factors

  1. Demographic factors
    • Age (increased)
    • Low socioeconomic status
  2. Lifestyle-related factors
  3. Comorbidities
  4. Echocardiographic factors
  5. Pharmacological factors
  6. Biochemical
  7. Genetic risk factors

Risk Factors Associated with Heart Failure Progression and Outcomes

  1. Clinical
  2. Echocardiographic
  3. Exercise Tolerance
    • Exercise duration
    • Peak O2 consumption
    • VE/VCO2
    • Anaerobic threshold 6-minute walk test
  4. Hemodynamics
  5. Electrophysiological
  6. Neurohormonal
  7. Natriuretic factors
  8. Cytokines and others

References

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