Oral and maxillofacial surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


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List of terms related to Oral and maxillofacial surgery

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is a recognized international surgical specialty.[2]

Regulations

In other parts of the world Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery as a speciality exists but under different forms as the work is sometimes performed by a single or dual qualified specialist depending on each country's regulations and training opportunities available.

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons

An oral and maxillofacial surgeon is a regional specialist surgeon treating the anatomical area of the mouth, jaws, face, skull, as well as associated structures.

Oral & maxillofacial surgeons are usually initially qualified in dentistry and have undergone further surgical training. Some OMS residencies integrate a medical education as well & an appropriate degree medicine (MBBS or MD or equivalent) is earned, although in the United States there is legally no difference in what a dual degree OMFS can do compared to someone who earned a four year certificate. Oral & maxillofacial surgery is universally recognized as a one of the nine specialties of dentistry. However also in the UK and many other countries OMFS is a medical specialty as well culminating in the FRCS (Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons). Regardless, all oral & maxillofacial surgeons must obtain a degree in dentistry (BDS, BDent, DDS, or DMD or equivalent) before being allowed to begin residency training in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

They also may choose to undergo further training in a 1 or 2 year fellowship to expand the scope of practice to areas such as:

The popularity of oral and maxillofacial surgery as a career for persons whose first degree was medicine, not dentistry, seems to be increasing. Integrated programs are becoming more available to medical graduates allowing them to complete the dental degree requirement in about 3 years in order for them to advance to subsequently complete Oral and Maxillofacial surgical training.

Surgical procedures

Treatments may be performed on the mouth, jaws, neck, face, skull, and include:

A well known example of a facial trauma case was the reconstruction of Trevor Rees-Jones's face, which was literally flattened by the impact of the car crash that killed Diana, Princess of Wales. Dr Luc Chikhani rebuilt the shattered facial bones, working from photographs, and implanting hundreds of titanium screws and brackets.

In November 2005 Isabelle Dinoire became the first person in the world to receive a face transplant.[3] The procedure was completed by Dr Bernard Devauchelle a French oral and maxillofacial surgeon at Amiens University Hospital.

United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is one of the 9 dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery requires 4-6 years of further formal University training after dental school (DDS,BDent,DMD, or BDS). Four-year residency programs grant a certificate of specialty training in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Six-year residency programs grant the specialty certificate in addition to a medical degree (MD,MBBS,MBChB, etc). Specialists in this field are designated registrable U.S. “Board Eligible” and warrant exclusive titles. Approximately 50% of the training programs in the U.S., 100% of the programs in Australia and New Zealand, and 1/5 of Canadian training programs, are dual-degree leading to dual certification in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and medicine (MD,MBBS,MBChB, etc).

The typical training program for an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon is:

  • 4 Years Undergraduate Study (BA, BSc, or equivalent)
  • 4 Years Dental Study (DMD,BDent,DDS, or BDS)
  • 4 - 6 Years Residency Training (additional time for acquiring medical degree)
  • After completion of surgical training most undertake final specialty examinations: (U.S. "Board Certified (ABOMS)"), (Australia/NZ: "FRACDS(OMS)"), or (Canada: "FRCD(C)(OMS)").
  • Many dually qualified oral and maxillofacial surgeons are now also obtaining Fellowships with the American College of Surgeons (FACS)
  • Average total length after Secondary School: 12 - 14 Years

In addition, graduates of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery training programs can pursue advanced fellowships, typically 1 - 2 years in length, in the following areas:

Organizations

See also

References

  • European Cranio-maxillofacial Sugery [24]
  • Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery [25]
  • International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons [26]
  • British Association of Maxillofacial Surgeons [27]

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