A specialty in medicine is a branch of medical science, other than general practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency. Doctors who engage in a medical specialty are known as medical specialists.
Although medical specialists in other countries on average make less than those in the U.S., they also go through fewer years of training, and most, if not all, of their educational tuition and living expenses are funded by the government during these years. In some countries (e.g., Austria, Netherlands), specialty pay as a percentage of GDP per capita actually exceeds the U.S.
Specialties by country
Australia and New Zealand
Specialty training in Australia and New Zealand is overseen by the specialty colleges:
Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
There are three agencies or organizations in the United States which collectively oversee physician board certification of allopathic and osteopathic physicians in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the United States. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association; the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists. Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as an umbrella for its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.
|Certifying Board||National Organization||Physician Type|
|ABPS||AAPS||Allopathic and Osteopathic|
All boards of certification now require that physicians demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for their chosen specialty. Recertification varies by specialty between every 7 and every 10 years.
In this table, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:
- Surgical specialties - the use of manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disorders.
- Internal medicine - concerns the diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment of diseases in adults, especially of internal organs.
- Diagnostic specialties, rather examines disorders etc. than directly attempts to cure.
- Neurology - focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with neurological disorders.
|Specialty||Code||Group||Subspecialties||Description||Salary in US ($)|
|Anesthesiology||AN/PAN||surgical||Pediatrics, Pain management||the branch of medicine which deals with anesthesia and anesthetics.||233,400|
|Orthopedic surgery||ORS||surgical||hand surgery, surgical sports medicine||consists of surgery of the locomotor system.||289,000|
|Otolaryngology||ORL or ENT||surgical||Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neuro-otology, Laryngology||(or otorhinolaryngology or ENT/ear-nose-throat) is concerned with treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty which is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.||199,200|
|Pediatric surgery||surgical||treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.|
|Plastic surgery||PS||surgical||Cosmetic surgery, Burn, Microsurgery, Hand surgery, Craniofacial surgery||includes aesthetic surgery (operations that are done for other than medical purposes) as well as reconstructive surgery (operations to restore function and/or appearance after traumatic or operative mutilation).||317,000 |
|Surgical oncology||SO||surgical/Oncology specialty||concerned with curative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.|
|Urology||U||surgical||Focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").||227,200|
|Vascular surgery||VS||surgical||surgery of peripheral blood vessels, i.e. those outside of the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and of the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery).|
|Thoracic surgery||TS||surgical||376,000 |
|General surgery||GS||surgical||Cosmetic surgery, Trauma surgery, Colorectal surgery||traditionally defined as the specialty of surgery of the skin, endocrine glands, and abdomen (and, sometimes, the mammary glands). In some countries, it is still deemed a prerequisite training prior to progression to training in certain subspecialties, but lately has evolved into its own subspecialty||206,100|
|Cardiovascular surgery||surgical||the surgical specialty that is concerned with the heart and major blood vessels of the chest.||470,000|
|Maxillofacial surgery||Maxfacs or OMFS||surgical||Craniofacial surgery, Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Craniomaxillofacial trauma||surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.|
|Dermatology||D or DS||other||deals with the skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc).||160,800|
|Emergency medicine||EM||surgical/Internal medicine||branch of medicine that is practiced in a hospital emergency department, in the field (in a modified form — see EMS), and other locations where initial medical treatment of illness takes place.||172,300|
|Cardiology||Internal medicine||specializes in disorders of the cardiovascular system and its diseases. The field is commonly divided into subdisciplines dealing with congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.||251,700|
|Intensive care medicine||Internal medicine||or intensive care medicine - concerned with the therapy of patients with serious and life-threatening disease or injury. Intensive care medicine employs invasive diagnostic techniques and (temporary) replacement of organ functions by technical means. This field is often associated with pulmonology.|
|Endocrinology||Internal medicine||concerned with the endocrine system (i.e. endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.|
|Gastroenterology||Internal medicine||concerned with the alimentary tract.||202,200|
|Clinical laboratory sciences||Diagnostic specialties||
||the clinical diagnostic services which apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management of patients. In the United States these services are supervised by a pathologist. The personnel that work in these medical laboratory departments are technically trained staff, each of whom usually hold a medical technology degree, who actually perform the tests, assays, and procedures needed for providing the specific services.||160,300 |
|Hematology||Internal medicine||or haematology (BE) - concerned with the blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology is part of oncology in the US, though the disciplines are separate in the UK.|
|Hepatology||Internal medicine||concerned with the liver and biliary tract, and is usually a part of gastroenterology.|
|Infectious diseases||ID||Internal medicine||concerned with the study, diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by biological agents.|
|Nephrology||Internal medicine||concerned with diseases of the kidneys.|
|Proctology||PRO||Internal medicine||specializes in treatment of disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.|
|Pulmonology||Internal medicine(/intensive care specialty)||chest medicine, respiratory medicine, or lung medicine is concerned with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory system. In some countries and areas. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.||142,900|
|Rheumatology||RHU||Internal medicine||devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.|
|Neurosurgery||NS||Neurology/surgical||Treating central, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column diseases.||300,000-500,000 |
||the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis. X-rays, etc.||186,600|
|Obstetrics and gynaecology||OBS GYN||surgical ||the branches of medicine which deals with female reproductive organs, pregnancy, and childbirth.||260,000 |
|Ophthalmology||OPH||surgical||branch of medical practice dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain etc.||222,600|
|Pathology||PTH||Diagnostic specialties||the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty which uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information, as well as the related scientific study of disease processes.||189,000|
|Pediatrics||PD||other||Like internal medicine, there are many pediatric subspecialities for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most subspecialities of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology.||deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).||120,000|
|Physical medicine and rehabilitation||Neurology/other||(or physiatry) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.|
|Oncology||ON||other||devoted to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer and other malignant diseases, and is often grouped with hematology.||180,800|
|Geriatrics||IMG||Internal medicine ||branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, care, and treatment of function and diseases of the aging patient.|
|Intensive care medicine||other||concerned with the provision of life support or organ support systems in patients who are critically ill and who usually require intensive monitoring.|
|Clinical Neurophysiology||Diagnostic specialty||
||concerned with testing the physiology or function of the central and peripheral aspects of the nervous system. These kinds of tests can be divided into recordings of: (1) spontaneous or continuously running electrical activity, or (2) stimulus evoked responses.|
|Palliative care||PLM||other||a relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.|
||the branch of medicine concerned with the bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.||139,600|
- Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine, including e.g.
- General practice - family practice, family medicine or primary care is, in many countries, the first port-of-call for patients with non-emergency medical problems. By definition not a medical specialty, but a mix of all of them.
- Occupational medicine - branch of clinical medicine which provides health advice to organizations and individuals concerning work-related health and safety issues and standards. See occupational safety and health.
- Disaster medicine - branch of medicine that provides healthcare services to disaster survivors; guides medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery throughout the disaster life cycle andserves as a liaison between and partner to the medical contingency planner, the emergency management professional, the incident command system, government and policy makers.
- Preventive medicine- part of medicine engaged with preventing disease rather than curing it. It can be contrasted not only with curative medicine, but also with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health).
- Medical genetics - the application of genetics to medicine. Medical genetics is a broad and varied field. It encompasses many different individual fields, including clinical genetics, biochemical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, the genetics of common diseases (such as neural tube defects), and genetic counseling.
- ibmdllc.com -Physician income not rising as fast as other professional pay
- http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/06-07/0607335.pdf p. 38
-  corresponding to 170,000 AUD
- LÄKARE - Utbildning och arbetsmarknad - Sveriges läkarförbund (Swedish physician association), giving a value corresponding to $6,217 per month
- (NAO report (HC 335 2006-2007):Pay Modernisation: A New Contract for NHS Consultants in England
- Annual. Unless else specified in table, then ref is:'Integrated Care' Practices Adjust Pay, Seek New Markets as Budgets Shrink Physician Compensation Report, June, 2002]
- Regeringen.se - new grouping of the medical specialties
- mdsalaries.blogspot.com taking the mean values between: Houston, TX: 300.000, Los Angeles, CA: 326,000, Miami, FL: 300,000, New York, NY: 341,000, Seattle, WA: 317,000.
- aamc.org: Mean of 218,550 to 533,000
- for an Allergist
- Salary.com and studentdoc.com
- New York Times - 2 Lose Pay in Inquiry Into Fertility Clinic. Published: January 22, 1996, calculated as a mean value of the values provided, multiplicated with estimated 9 months per year yields 700,800
- aamc.org : mean of: 219,000 to 302,192