Esotropia

Jump to: navigation, search
Esotropia
ICD-10 H50.0, H50.3
ICD-9 378.0

WikiDoc Resources for Esotropia

Articles

Most recent articles on Esotropia

Most cited articles on Esotropia

Review articles on Esotropia

Articles on Esotropia in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Esotropia

Images of Esotropia

Photos of Esotropia

Podcasts & MP3s on Esotropia

Videos on Esotropia

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Esotropia

Bandolier on Esotropia

TRIP on Esotropia

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Esotropia at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Esotropia

Clinical Trials on Esotropia at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Esotropia

NICE Guidance on Esotropia

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Esotropia

CDC on Esotropia

Books

Books on Esotropia

News

Esotropia in the news

Be alerted to news on Esotropia

News trends on Esotropia

Commentary

Blogs on Esotropia

Definitions

Definitions of Esotropia

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Esotropia

Discussion groups on Esotropia

Patient Handouts on Esotropia

Directions to Hospitals Treating Esotropia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Esotropia

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Esotropia

Causes & Risk Factors for Esotropia

Diagnostic studies for Esotropia

Treatment of Esotropia

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Esotropia

International

Esotropia en Espanol

Esotropia en Francais

Business

Esotropia in the Marketplace

Patents on Esotropia

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Esotropia


Person exhibiting esotropia of the right eye

Esotropia is a form of strabismus where one or both of the eyes turn inward. Esotropia is often called "lazy eye" in error, as this term correctly refers to amblyopia. People with esotropia have "crossed eyes", and suffer from uncrossed diplopia. The most common type of esotropia occurs in approximately one to two percent of the population. Treatment options include glasses with prism lenses, orthoptics, and/or eye muscle surgery. While eye exercises are often useful for intermittent exotropia, they are less useful for intractable esotropia, as voluntary divergence is difficult to increase.

Accommodative esotropia

Accommodative esotropia is often seen in patients with a moderate to large amount of hyperopia. The hyperope, in an attempt to "accommodate" or focus the eyes, converges the eyes as well, as convergence is associated with activation of the accommodation reflex. This is appropriately treated with hyperopic glasses to reduce accommodative convergence, and can just as effectively be treated with contact lenses.

"Partly accommodative esotropia" is generally treated by glasses or contacts as well as eye muscle surgery.

Left or right eye, or both

In esotropia, the patient often favors one eye. This will result in left esotropia or right esotropia, the directional name referring to the eye that turns. In this case, the turned eye almost always develops some degree of amblyopia. Just as often, the patient alternates between the two eyes, so that at one time, the right eye is fixating and the left eye is turned in, and the next moment, the left eye fixates and the right turns in. This is called alternating esotropia, and in this condition, it is common for neither eye to develop amblyopia, both eyes being capable of 20/20 corrected or uncorrected vision. It never happens, however, that both eyes turn in at the same time, as the patient will not be looking at anything if this happened.

Congenital esotropia

Congenital esotropia, or infantile esotropia, is a variation that occurs very early in life, generally developing within the first three months of an infant's life. Children with congenital esotropia usually cross fixate, meaning that they use either eye to fixate with, and often show preference by fixating with the dominant eye. True congenital esotropia is usually best treated with early surgery (by age one year). Usually any associated amblyopia is treated by patching prior to surgical intervention. Oblique muscle dysfunction often accompanies congenital esotropia, and may require surgical treatment.

External links


Linked-in.jpg