Sacrococcygeal teratoma natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mirdula Sharma, MBBS [2]


Depending on the extent of the tumor invasion at the time of diagnosis, the prognosis may vary. Most of the sacrococcygeal teratomas are benign in nature and prognosis is generally regarded as good after resection. The sacrococcygeal teratoma with cystic morphology is associated with the most favorable prognosis.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

Sacrococcygeal teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumors (both benign and malignant) diagnosed in neonates, infants, and children younger than 4 years.[1]

Fetal Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

Neonatal Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

  • The tumor presents as a protruding mass from the sacral region and is usually mature or immature teratoma.

Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in Infants and Young Children

Sacrococcygeal Teratoma in Older Children and Adults


Maternal Complications

Fetal Complications

Complications Related to the Treatment


Poor Prognostic Factors

Favorable Prognostic Factors


  1. 1.0 1.1 Sacrococcygeal teratoma. (2015)(PDQ) Sacrococcygeal Tumors in Children Accessed on November 2th, 2015
  2. Rescorla FJ: Pediatric germ cell tumors. Semin Surg Oncol 16 (2): 144-58, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Finamore PS, Kontopoulos E, Price M, Giannina G, Smulian JC (2007). "Mirror syndrome associated with sacrococcygeal teratoma: a case report". The Journal of reproductive medicine. 52 (3): 225–7. PMID 17465292.
  4. Nalbanski B, Markov D, Brankov O (2007). "[Sacrococcygeal teratoma--a case report and literature review]". Akusherstvo i ginekologii͡a (in Bulgarian). 46 (2): 41–5. PMID 17469451.
  5. Galili O, Mogilner J (2005). "Type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma causing urinary retention: a rare presentation". J. Pediatr. Surg. 40 (2): E18–20. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2004.10.003. PMID 15750911.
  6. Engelskirchen R, Holschneider AM, Rhein R, Hecker WC, Höpner F (1987). "[Sacral teratomas in childhood. An analysis of long-term results in 87 children]". Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie : organ der Deutschen, der Schweizerischen und der Osterreichischen Gesellschaft für Kinderchirurgie = Surgery in infancy and childhood (in German). 42 (6): 358–61. PMID 3439358.
  7. Surgical experience and cosmetic outcomes in children with sacrococcygeal teratoma. PubMed (2006) 16373161&dopt=AbstractPlus PubMed Accessed on November 24th, 2015
  8. Lack EE, Glaun RS, Hefter LG, Seneca RP, Steigman C, Athari F (1993). "Late occurrence of malignancy following resection of a histologically mature sacrococcygeal teratoma. Report of a case and literature review". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 117 (7): 724–8. PMID 8323438. Synopsis: A 40 year old man has widely metastatic adenocarcinoma arising from the residual coccyx remaining after surgical removal of an apparently benign SCT at age 2 months.
  9. Partridge EA, Canning D, Long C, Peranteau WH, Hedrick HL, Adzick NS, Flake AW (2014). "Urologic and anorectal complications of sacrococcygeal teratomas: prenatal and postnatal predictors". J. Pediatr. Surg. 49 (1): 139–42, discussion 142–3. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.09.042. PMID 24439598.
  10. Sacrococcygeal teratoma. Chop.Edu (2015) Accessed on November 24th, 2015
  11. 11.0 11.1 Shue E, Bolouri M, Jelin EB, Vu L, Bratton B, Cedars E, Yoke L, Byrne F, Hirose S, Feldstein V, Miniati D, Lee H (2013). "Tumor metrics and morphology predict poor prognosis in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratoma: a 25-year experience at a single institution". J. Pediatr. Surg. 48 (6): 1225–31. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.03.016. PMID 23845611.
  12. Sy ED, Filly RA, Cheong ML, Clifton MS, Cortes RA, Ohashi S, Takifuji K, Ventura DE, Grethel EJ, Wagner AJ, Gress EA, Ball RH, Lee H, Harrison MR (2009). "Prognostic role of tumor-head volume ratio in fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma". Fetal. Diagn. Ther. 26 (2): 75–80. doi:10.1159/000238113. PMID 19752518.
  13. Seung Mi Lee, Dong Hoon Suh, So Yeon Kim, Min Kyoung Kim, Sohee Oh, Sang Hoon Song, Hyun-Young Kim, Chan-Wook Park, Joong Shin Park & Jong Kwan Jun (2018). "Antenatal Prediction of Neonatal Survival in Sacrococcygeal Teratoma". Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. 37 (8): 2003–2009. doi:10.1002/jum.14553. PMID 29399854. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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