Sacrococcygeal teratoma surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mirdula Sharma, MBBS [2]


Perinatal surgical intervention is used to decrease cardiovascular complications caused by the large sacrococcygeal teratoma. Early complete resection is the mainstay of management of benign tumor. Complete surgical excision in malignant sacrococcygeal teratoma is followed by platinum based chemotherapy.


Perinatal Management

Perinatal intervention is only used to decrease cardiovascular complications caused by the parasitic mass.[1]

Open Fetal Surgery

Minimally Invasive in Utero Procedures

Delivery Option

Fetus with High-risk Sacrococcygeal Teratoma[1]

Fetus with Low-risk Sacrococcygeal Teratoma[1]

Fetus with Small Tumor (< 5cm)[9]

Postnatal Management

Benign Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

Early complete resection is the mainstay of management of benign tumor.[10]

Malignant Sacrococcygeal Teratoma


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Roybal JL, Moldenhauer JS, Khalek N, Bebbington MW, Johnson MP, Hedrick HL, Adzick NS, Flake AW (2011). "Early delivery as an alternative management strategy for selected high-risk fetal sacrococcygeal teratomas". J. Pediatr. Surg. 46 (7): 1325–32. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.10.020. PMID 21763829.
  2. Makin EC, Hyett J, Ade-Ajayi N, Patel S, Nicolaides K, Davenport M (2006). "Outcome of antenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas: single-center experience (1993-2004)". J. Pediatr. Surg. 41 (2): 388–93. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2005.11.017. PMID 16481257.
  3. Hecher K, Hackelöer BJ (1996). "Intrauterine endoscopic laser surgery for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma". Lancet. 347 (8999): 470. PMID 8618503.
  4. Lam YH, Tang MH, Shek TW (2002). "Thermocoagulation of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma". Prenat. Diagn. 22 (2): 99–101. PMID 11857611.
  5. Paek BW, Jennings RW, Harrison MR, Filly RA, Tacy TA, Farmer DL, Albanese CT (2001). "Radiofrequency ablation of human fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 184 (3): 503–7. doi:10.1067/mob.2001.110446. PMID 11228510.
  6. Wilson RD, Hedrick H, Flake AW, Johnson MP, Bebbington MW, Mann S, Rychik J, Liechty K, Adzick NS (2009). "Sacrococcygeal teratomas: prenatal surveillance, growth and pregnancy outcome". Fetal. Diagn. Ther. 25 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1159/000188056. PMID 19122459.
  7. Scrimgeour EM, Brown P (1991). "BSE and potential risks to slaughtermen". Vet. Rec. 129 (17): 390–1. PMID 1746122.
  8. Lee MY, Won HS, Hyun MK, Lee HY, Shim JY, Lee PR, Kim A (2011). "Perinatal outcome of sacrococcygeal teratoma". Prenat. Diagn. 31 (13): 1217–21. doi:10.1002/pd.2865. PMID 22024911.
  9. Okada T, Sasaki F, Cho K, Honda S, Naito S, Hirokata G, Todo S (2008). "Management and outcome in prenatally diagnosed sacrococcygeal teratomas". Pediatr Int. 50 (4): 576–80. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2008.02703.x. PMID 18937757.
  10. Marina NM, Cushing B, Giller R, Cohen L, Lauer SJ, Ablin A, Weetman R, Cullen J, Rogers P, Vinocur C, Stolar C, Rescorla F, Hawkins E, Heifetz S, Rao PV, Krailo M, Castleberry RP (1999). "Complete surgical excision is effective treatment for children with immature teratomas with or without malignant elements: A Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group Intergroup Study". J. Clin. Oncol. 17 (7): 2137–43. PMID 10561269.
  11. Ein SH, Mancer K, Adeyemi SD (1985). "Malignant sacrococcygeal teratoma--endodermal sinus, yolk sac tumor--in infants and children: a 32-year review". J. Pediatr. Surg. 20 (5): 473–7. PMID 3903096.
  12. Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Bökkerink JP, Gadner H, Harms D, Willers R, Göbel U (2003). "Prognostic value of tumor size, metastases, extension into bone, and increased tumor marker in children with malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors: a prospective evaluation of 71 patients treated in the German cooperative protocols Maligne Keimzelltumoren (MAKEI) 83/86 and MAKEI 89". J. Clin. Oncol. 21 (5): 781–6. PMID 12610174.

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