Oliguria differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Home logo1.png

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hadeel Maksoud M.D.[2], Eiman Ghaffarpasand, M.D. [3], Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.[4]

Overview

There are several life-threatening causes of oliguria which is needed to be evaluated, which include sepsis, urethral stricture, dehydration, and shock. The other possible causes of oliguria can be evaluated by carefully assessing the nature of the symptoms, and obtaining a thorough patient history.

Oliguria Differential Diagnosis

The following table outlines the major differential diagnoses of oliguria:

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with thirst, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with muscle weakness, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with somatic pain, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with vomiting, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with tachypnea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with edema, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with fatigue and thirst, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with fatigue and tachypnea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with fatigue and edema, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with fatigue, somatic pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of oliguria with fatigue, somatic pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and edema click here.


Abbreviations: ABG = Arterial blood gases, BUN = Blood urea nitrogen, CBC = Complete blood count, CT = Computed tomography, CRP = C - reactive protein, ECG = Electrocardiogram, ESR = Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, IVP = Intravenous pyelography, KFT = Kidney function test, GI = Gastrointestinal, GFR = Glomerular filtration rate, MRI = Magnetic resonance imaging, PT = Prothrombin time

Etiology Clinical manifestations Paraclinical findings Comments
Symptoms and signs Lab findings Imaging
Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other
Prerenal causes Alcohol poisoning[1][2] + - +/- - +/- + +/- - - PT BUN, ↑Cr (isopropyl alcohol) Na NA HCO3 LFT NA NA NA NA - Administer thiamine to prevent Wernicke's encephalopathy
Aspergillosis[3][4] +/- - - - - - - +/- - NA NA NA NA NA Allergy test, ↑IgE (>1000 IU/dl), direct visualization of fungal hyphae NA Pulmonary infiltrates, mucus plug, mass in the upper lobe surrounded by a crescent of air, solitary or multiple cavities Halo sign, wedge-shaped pulmonary infarction, granuloma NA - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirms the diagnosis
Cholera[5][6][6][7] +/- + +/-

Depends on severity

- - +/- + - - Leukocytosis, ↑HCT BUN, ↑Cr Na, ↑Ca, ↑Mg NA Lactate, ↓HCO3 Stool PCR, stool culture, serotyping NA NA NA NA - -
Congestive heart failure (CHF)[8][9] + - - - - - + - + Anemia, leukocytosis BUN, ↑Cr Na, ↑K NA Lactate, ↓HCO3, BNP, ↑troponin Cardiomegaly, pulmonary hypertension, pleural effusion Pulmonary edema NA Valvular heart disease Decreased ejection fraction in echocardiography, decreased heart function and damage in nuclear imaging -
Dehydration[10][11] + + +/-

Depends on the severity

+/- - +/- +/- - - NA BUN, ↑Cr Na, ↑K, ↓Cl ↑ Urine ketones and glucose, ↑urine specific gravity Lactate, ↓HCO3 Hypoglycemia NA NA NA NA - -
Diarrhea and/or vomiting[12][13] +/- +/- - - - + + - - Leukocytosis with predominant neutrophilia, ↑ESR NA NA ↑ Urine ketones, organic acids, porphobilinogen, aminolevulinic acid NA Stool anion gap, stool pH < 5.5, stool culture, serotyping, enzyme immunoassay (rotavirus or adenovirus), abnormal LFT, amylase, lipase Normal NA NA NA - -
Etiology Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other Comments
Drugs/toxins[14][15] +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- NA BUN, ↑Cr, ↑CK K, ↓Mg, ↓Ca, ↓P Ingested drug, glucose, aminoacid, phosphate, ketone, hyaline cast, and RBC Lactate, metabolic acidosis Toxicology, rapid immunoassay Nephropathy Radioopaque substances, ingested drug packets NA NA - -
Esophageal varices bleeding[16][17] +/- - - - +/- - - - - Normocytic normochromic anemia BUN, ↑Cr NA NA NA NA Velocity and direction of portal flow Abnormal opacities outside ofesophageal wall, posterior mediastinal or intraparenchymal mass, dilated azygous vein Entire portal venous system Portrays esophageal varices as flow voids Portal hypertension and esophageal varices in positron emission tomography, flexible endoscope, barium swallow of snake-like filling defects -
Congenital heart disease[18][19] +/- - - - - - - +/- +/- ESR and CRP BUN, ↑Cr NA NA NA Throat culture, rapid streptococcal antigen test, hyperoxia test, pulse oximetry NA Cardiomegaly, dextrocardia NA NA Ventricular dysfunction, left and right ventricular hypertrophy, valvular disease in echocardiography -
Hemorrhage[20][21] - + +/-

Depends on the severity

- - - - +/- - Normocytic normochromic anemia, ↑PT, ↑PTT BUN, ↑Cr Na, ↑Cl, ↓Ca NA Metabolic acidosis NA Peritoneal cavity fluid in FAST Bilateral opacities in the lung field, hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm Intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, and retroperitoneal bleeding NA Source of bleeding in the upper GI in EGD, angiography -
Hemolysis[22][23] +/- - - - - - - +/- - Thrombocytopenia, microcytic hypochromic anemia, ↑RDW, ↑retic count NA NA NA NA LDH, ↓haptoglobin, ↑unconjugated bilirubin Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly NA NA NA - -
Etiology Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other Comments
Hepatorenal syndrome[24][25] +/- - - - +/- +/- - - +/- Leukocytosis, ↑PT GFR, ↑BUN, ↑Cr Na Proteinuria, Na <10mEq/L, urine osmolality > plasma osmolality NA Alpha feto-protein, cryoglobulinemia Exclude hydronephrosis and intrinsic renal disease NA NA NA Right ventricular preload, ventricular filling pressures, and cardiac function in echocardiography -
Ischemic cardiomyopathy[26][27] +/- - - - - - - +/- +/- Anemia Cr Na, ↓K, ↓Mg NA NA Troponin, creatine kinase, Creatine kinase-MB, BNP NA Abnormal cardiac silhouette Biventricular volume, wall motion abnormality, myocardial perfusion, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Mid-wall fibrosis in MRI Ejection fraction ≤35%, pulmonary embolism, right ventricular dilation or pericardial effusion with tamponade in echocardiography -
Liver cirrhosis[28][29] +/- - +/- +/- +/- - - - +/- NA NA NA NA NA Abnormal LFT, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio, FibroTest/FibroSure, Hepascore Portal blood flow velocity, hepatic artery enlargement, multifocal lesions or masses, hepatic contour, ascites, splenomegaly Bowel perforation, gynecomastia, azygos vein enlargement, pleural effusion Morphologic changes in the liver, collaterals and shunts, hyperattenuating nodule of hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis Vacular patency, tumor invasion, portal vein thrombosis, steatosis Hepatic function and portal hypertension in nuclear imaging, hepatic perfusion and the development of shunts and tumors in angiography Irreversible and a transplant is usually needed
Malignant hypertension[30][31] +/- - + - - +/- - +/- +/- Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia BUN, ↑Cr Na, ↑K, ↑P Proteinuria, microscopic hematuria Acidosis Cardiac enzymes, urinary catecholamines, TSH, ↑Renin NA Cardiomegaly, pulmonary edema, rib notching, aortic coarctation, mediastinal widening, aortic dissection NA NA Left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy in echocardiography -
Etiology Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other Comments
Myocarditis[32] +/- - - - +/- - - +/- - Leukocytosis (eosinophilia),↑ESR and ↑CRP NA NA NA NA Cardiac enzymes, viral antibodies NA NA NA Inflammatory edema, degree of scarring Endomyocardial biopsy, echocardiography, scintigraphy NA
Peritonitis[33][34] +/- - +/- - +/- +/- +/- - - Leukocytosis NA NA NA NA Ascitic fluid neutrophil count > 500 cells/µL NA NA NA NA - -
Polycythemia[35][36] +/- - - - - - - +/- - RBC, ↑HCT, ↑HGB, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, ↑PT, and ↑aPTT Erythropoietin NA NA NA Hyperuricemia Splenomegaly NA NA NA - Phlebotomy is the usual treatment
Respiratory distress syndrome[37] + - +/- - - - - + - NA NA NA NA Metabolic and respiratory acidosis Pulse oximetry NA Bilateral, diffuse, reticular granular or ground-glass appearance +/- cardiomegaly NA NA Patent ductus arteriosus in echocardiography -
Shock[38] +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- - +/- - HCT, ↑PT and aPTT, Eosinophilia, Leukocytosis GFR, ↑BUN, ↑Cr NA NA Lactate LFT, ↑BNP, ↑troponin, D-dimer, fibrinogen Pulmonary embolism, pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, pneumothorax, thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm in RUSH (Rapid Ultrasound for Shock and Hypotension) Pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, widened mediastinum, free air under the diaphragm Traumatic brain injury, stroke, spinal injury, pneumonia, pPneumothorax, ruptured aneurysm, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism NA - -
Toxic megacolon[39] +/- +/- +/- - + + +/- - - Leukocytosis, anemia, ↑ESR and ↑CRP BUN, ↑Cr Na NA NA Loss of haustra, hypoechoic and thick bowel walls, dilated colon > 6cm, dilatation of ileal loops Dilated colon, free intraperitoneal air Bowel perforation, abscess NA NA Endoscopy and colonoscopy -
Etiology Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other Comments
Renal causes Acute interstitial nephritis[40][41] +/- - +/- - +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- Eosinophilia BUN, ↑Cr, ↑FENa NA Eosinophiluria, sterile pyuria, mMicroscopic hematuria, proteinuria NA ↑Total IgG, ↑IgG4 Normal-sized kidneys NA NA NA - History of long term analgesic use
Acute tubular necrosis[42][43] +/- - - - - +/- - - +/- Anemia BUN, ↑Cr, ↑FENa Na, ↑K, ↑Mg, ↑P, ↓Ca Pigmented, muddy brown, granular casts NA NA Obstructive uropathy, cortical thickness, hydronephrosis Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis, area of obstruction Nephrolithiasis, area of obstruction Loss of tubular cells or the denuded tubules, swollen tubular cells, lLoss of the cell brush border in renal biopsy Furosemide stress testing for staging
Cancer[44][45] + - - - +/- +/- - - +/- Normocytic or microcytic anemia, leukocytosis or lymphocytosis, ↑reticulocytes, thrombocytopenia GFR, ↑BUN, ↑Cr, ↓Erythropoietin Na, ↑K, ↓Mg, ↑P, ↓Ca Gross hematuria NA LFT Fluid collection and morphological change, flank mass Calcification and widened mediastinum, filling defects in barium contrast Metastasis and staging, cystic and solid masses, lymph node, renal vein, and inferior vena cava involvement Soft tissue invasion and staging Malignant cystic lesions percutaneous cyst puncture Renal cell carcinoma types: Clear cell (75%), chromophilic (15%), chromophobic (5%), oncocytoma (3%), collecting duct (2%)
Congenital kidney disease[46][47][48]

- Agenesis

- Dysplasia

- Hypoplasia

- Polycystic

+/- - - - +/- +/- - - +/- HCT GFR P, ↓Ca Microalbuminuria, uricosuria NA Genetic testing forADPKD2 Visualization of kidney cysts Small kidney cysts (0.5 cm) Kidney size, intracranial aneurysms NA - -
End stage renal disease[49][50] + - - - +/- - - - + Anemia GFR, ↑BUN, ↑Cr K Hypoalbuminuria HCO3 Phosphate, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone Hydronephrosis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, enlarged or shrunken kidneys Obstruction in retrograde pyelogram Renal masses, stones, and cysts Renal vein thrombosis, renal artery stenosis in magnetic resonance angiography Percutaneous renal biopsy -
Etiology Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other Comments
Endogenous toxins[51][52][53][54][55]

- Hemoglobin

- Myoglobin

- Uric acid

+/- - +/- + - +/- - - +/- Anemia, thrombocytopenia GFR, ↑BUN, ↑Cr K, ↑urate, ↓Ca Uricosuria, hematuria, myoglobinuria, casts NA Creatine kinase > 1000 U/L Malignant or cystic lesions, hydronephrosis, nephrocalcinosis, urolithiasis NA Urolithiasis, wilms tumor, polycystic kidney disease NA Ureter or bladder abnormality in voiding cystourethrography -
Glomerulonephritis[56][57][58] +/- - - - - - - - + Pleocytosis, anemia, leukocytosis, ↑ESR BUN, ↑Cr NA Specific gravity > 1.020, proteinuria, hematuria, red blood cell casts, white blood cell casts, cellular casts, oval fat bodies NA NA C3, ↑C4, ↑CH50, blood and tissue culture, antinuclear antibodies, cryoglobulins, hepatitis B and C serologies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) Kidney size, echogenicity of the renal cortex, obstruction, degree of fibrosis Pulmonary congestion Visceral abscesses - Renal biopsy, light and electron microscopy, immunofluorescence aid diagnosis
Goodpasture syndrome[59][60][61] +/- - - - - - - +/- +/- Anemia, leukocytosis, ↑ESR BUN, ↑Cr NA Low-grade proteinuria, gross or microscopic hematuria, RBC casts NA Anti– glomerular basement membrane antibody, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody NA Bilateral, basal, patchy parenchymal consolidations NA NA Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in pulmonary biopsy -
Hemolytic uremic syndrome[62][63][64] +/- - +/- +/- +/- + + - +/- Severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, ↑aPTT BUN, ↑Cr NA Mild proteinuria, Red blood cells, Red blood cell casts NA Schistocytes, ↑FDP and D-dimer, ↑bilirubin, ↑LDH, ↓haptoglobin, stool culture (for E coli 0157:H7 or shigella), ↓ADAMTS-13 activity Ruling out obstruction NA NA NA Diffuse thickening of the glomerular capillary wall, swelling of endothelial cells, fibrin thrombi in renal biopsy -
Nephrolithiasis[65][66][67] - - - - +/- +/- - - - Mild leukocytosis, ↑CRP BUN, ↑Cr Na, ↑K, ↑P, ↑Ca, ↑urate Gross or microscopic hematuria, Red blood cells, urinary crystals of calcium oxalate, uric acid, or cystine, hypercalciuria, urinary pH > 7 in struvite stones (Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella), urinary pH < 5 in uric acid stones HCO3, renal tubular acidosis - All types of stones are visible, hydronephrosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cholelithiasis Calcium - containing stones, uric acid or cystine stones, stone movement Stone density, size and composition, hydronephrosis, nephromegaly, perinephric fat streaking NA Intravenous pyelography (IVP), renal tomography, nuclear renal scan -
Etiology Fatigue/

Lethargy

Thirst Dizziness/

Confusion

Muscle weakness/

cramp

Somatic/

visceral pain

Vomiting Diarrhea Tachypnea Edema Blood indices Renal Funtion test Electrolytes Urine analysis ABG Other Ultrasound X-ray CT MRI Other Comments

References

  1. Pletcher MJ, Maselli J, Gonzales R (December 2004). "Uncomplicated alcohol intoxication in the emergency department: an analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey". Am. J. Med. 117 (11): 863–7. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.07.042. PMID 15589492.
  2. Cherpitel CJ (March 1989). "Breath analysis and self-reports as measures of alcohol-related emergency room admissions". J. Stud. Alcohol. 50 (2): 155–61. PMID 2927129.
  3. Marr KA, Carter RA, Crippa F, Wald A, Corey L (April 2002). "Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients". Clin. Infect. Dis. 34 (7): 909–17. doi:10.1086/339202. PMID 11880955.
  4. Cornillet A, Camus C, Nimubona S, Gandemer V, Tattevin P, Belleguic C, Chevrier S, Meunier C, Lebert C, Aupée M, Caulet-Maugendre S, Faucheux M, Lelong B, Leray E, Guiguen C, Gangneux JP (September 2006). "Comparison of epidemiological, clinical, and biological features of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients: a 6-year survey". Clin. Infect. Dis. 43 (5): 577–84. doi:10.1086/505870. PMID 16886149.
  5. Weil AA, Khan AI, Chowdhury F, Larocque RC, Faruque AS, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB, Qadri F, Harris JB (November 2009). "Clinical outcomes in household contacts of patients with cholera in Bangladesh". Clin. Infect. Dis. 49 (10): 1473–9. doi:10.1086/644779. PMC 2783773. PMID 19842974.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cash RA, Music SI, Libonati JP, Snyder MJ, Wenzel RP, Hornick RB (January 1974). "Response of man to infection with Vibrio cholerae. I. Clinical, serologic, and bacteriologic responses to a known inoculum". J. Infect. Dis. 129 (1): 45–52. PMID 4809112.
  7. Harris JB, Ivers LC, Ferraro MJ (June 2011). "Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 19-2011. A 4-year-old Haitian boy with vomiting and diarrhea". N. Engl. J. Med. 364 (25): 2452–61. doi:10.1056/NEJMcpc1100927. PMID 21696312.
  8. Solomon SD, Dobson J, Pocock S, Skali H, McMurray JJ, Granger CB, Yusuf S, Swedberg K, Young JB, Michelson EL, Pfeffer MA (September 2007). "Influence of nonfatal hospitalization for heart failure on subsequent mortality in patients with chronic heart failure". Circulation. 116 (13): 1482–7. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.696906. PMID 17724259.
  9. Fonarow GC, Adams KF, Abraham WT, Yancy CW, Boscardin WJ (February 2005). "Risk stratification for in-hospital mortality in acutely decompensated heart failure: classification and regression tree analysis". JAMA. 293 (5): 572–80. doi:10.1001/jama.293.5.572. PMID 15687312.
  10. Steiner MJ, DeWalt DA, Byerley JS (June 2004). "Is this child dehydrated?". JAMA. 291 (22): 2746–54. doi:10.1001/jama.291.22.2746. PMID 15187057.
  11. Vega RM, Avner JR (June 1997). "A prospective study of the usefulness of clinical and laboratory parameters for predicting percentage of dehydration in children". Pediatr Emerg Care. 13 (3): 179–82. PMID 9220501.
  12. Carpenter DO (February 1990). "Neural mechanisms of emesis". Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 68 (2): 230–6. PMID 2178747.
  13. Bresee JS, Marcus R, Venezia RA, Keene WE, Morse D, Thanassi M, Brunett P, Bulens S, Beard RS, Dauphin LA, Slutsker L, Bopp C, Eberhard M, Hall A, Vinje J, Monroe SS, Glass RI (May 2012). "The etiology of severe acute gastroenteritis among adults visiting emergency departments in the United States". J. Infect. Dis. 205 (9): 1374–81. doi:10.1093/infdis/jis206. PMID 22454468.
  14. Toto RD, Mitchell HC, Lee HC, Milam C, Pettinger WA (October 1991). "Reversible renal insufficiency due to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertensive nephrosclerosis". Ann. Intern. Med. 115 (7): 513–9. PMID 1883120.
  15. Bismuth C, Gaultier M, Conso F, Efthymiou ML (1973). "Hyperkalemia in acute digitalis poisoning: prognostic significance and therapeutic implications". Clin. Toxicol. 6 (2): 153–62. doi:10.3109/15563657308990513. PMID 4715199.
  16. Graham DY, Smith JL (April 1981). "The course of patients after variceal hemorrhage". Gastroenterology. 80 (4): 800–9. PMID 6970703.
  17. de Franchis R (October 2010). "Revising consensus in portal hypertension: report of the Baveno V consensus workshop on methodology of diagnosis and therapy in portal hypertension". J. Hepatol. 53 (4): 762–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.06.004. PMID 20638742.
  18. LaCroix AZ, Lang J, Scherr P, Wallace RB, Cornoni-Huntley J, Berkman L, Curb JD, Evans D, Hennekens CH (June 1991). "Smoking and mortality among older men and women in three communities". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (23): 1619–25. doi:10.1056/NEJM199106063242303. PMID 2030718.
  19. Mahle WT, Newburger JW, Matherne GP, Smith FC, Hoke TR, Koppel R, Gidding SS, Beekman RH, Grosse SD (August 2009). "Role of pulse oximetry in examining newborns for congenital heart disease: a scientific statement from the AHA and AAP". Pediatrics. 124 (2): 823–36. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1397. PMID 19581259.
  20. Achneck HE, Sileshi B, Parikh A, Milano CA, Welsby IJ, Lawson JH (November 2010). "Pathophysiology of bleeding and clotting in the cardiac surgery patient: from vascular endothelium to circulatory assist device surface". Circulation. 122 (20): 2068–77. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.936773. PMID 21098468.
  21. Gralnick HR, Rick ME, McKeown LP, Williams SB, Parker RI, Maisonneuve P, Jenneau C, Sultan Y (July 1986). "Platelet von Willebrand factor: an important determinant of the bleeding time in type I von Willebrand's disease". Blood. 68 (1): 58–61. PMID 3487361.
  22. Liesveld JL, Rowe JM, Lichtman MA (March 1987). "Variability of the erythropoietic response in autoimmune hemolytic anemia: analysis of 109 cases". Blood. 69 (3): 820–6. PMID 3814817.
  23. Marchand A, Galen RS, Van Lente F (May 1980). "The predictive value of serum haptoglobin in hemolytic disease". JAMA. 243 (19): 1909–11. PMID 7365971.
  24. Ginès P, Schrier RW (September 2009). "Renal failure in cirrhosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 361 (13): 1279–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0809139. PMID 19776409.
  25. Arroyo V, Ginès P, Gerbes AL, Dudley FJ, Gentilini P, Laffi G, Reynolds TB, Ring-Larsen H, Schölmerich J (January 1996). "Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. International Ascites Club". Hepatology. 23 (1): 164–76. doi:10.1002/hep.510230122. PMID 8550036.
  26. Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G, Antzelevitch C, Corrado D, Arnett D, Moss AJ, Seidman CE, Young JB (April 2006). "Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention". Circulation. 113 (14): 1807–16. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.174287. PMID 16567565.
  27. Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Bjørnstad HH, Vanhees L, Biffi A, Borjesson M, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop N, Deligiannis A, Solberg E, Dugmore D, Mellwig KP, Assanelli D, Delise P, van-Buuren F, Anastasakis A, Heidbuchel H, Hoffmann E, Fagard R, Priori SG, Basso C, Arbustini E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, McKenna WJ, Thiene G (March 2005). "Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol. Consensus Statement of the Study Group of Sport Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology". Eur. Heart J. 26 (5): 516–24. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehi108. PMID 15689345.
  28. Ge PS, Runyon BA (March 2014). "The changing role of beta-blocker therapy in patients with cirrhosis". J. Hepatol. 60 (3): 643–53. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.09.016. PMID 24076364.
  29. Becker CD, Scheidegger J, Marincek B (1986). "Hepatic vein occlusion: morphologic features on computed tomography and ultrasonography". Gastrointest Radiol. 11 (4): 305–11. PMID 3533689.
  30. Johnson W, Nguyen ML, Patel R (November 2012). "Hypertension crisis in the emergency department". Cardiol Clin. 30 (4): 533–43. doi:10.1016/j.ccl.2012.07.011. PMID 23102030.
  31. Elliott WJ (2006). "Clinical features in the management of selected hypertensive emergencies". Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 48 (5): 316–25. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2006.02.004. PMID 16627047.
  32. Dec GW, Palacios IF, Fallon JT, Aretz HT, Mills J, Lee DC, Johnson RA (April 1985). "Active myocarditis in the spectrum of acute dilated cardiomyopathies. Clinical features, histologic correlates, and clinical outcome". N. Engl. J. Med. 312 (14): 885–90. doi:10.1056/NEJM198504043121404. PMID 3974674.
  33. Such J, Runyon BA (October 1998). "Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis". Clin. Infect. Dis. 27 (4): 669–74, quiz 675–6. PMID 9798013.
  34. Runyon BA (October 1990). "Monomicrobial nonneutrocytic bacterascites: a variant of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis". Hepatology. 12 (4 Pt 1): 710–5. PMID 2210672.
  35. Gregg XT, Prchal JT (January 1997). "Erythropoietin receptor mutations and human disease". Semin. Hematol. 34 (1): 70–6. PMID 9025165.
  36. Kralovics R, Indrak K, Stopka T, Berman BW, Prchal JF, Prchal JT (September 1997). "Two new EPO receptor mutations: truncated EPO receptors are most frequently associated with primary familial and congenital polycythemias". Blood. 90 (5): 2057–61. PMID 9292543.
  37. Hooper SB, Te Pas AB, Kitchen MJ (May 2016). "Respiratory transition in the newborn: a three-phase process". Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 101 (3): F266–71. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-305704. PMID 26542877.
  38. Vincent JL, De Backer D (October 2013). "Circulatory shock". N. Engl. J. Med. 369 (18): 1726–34. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1208943. PMID 24171518.
  39. Jalan KN, Sircus W, Card WI, Falconer CW, Bruce CB, Crean GP, McManus JP, Small WP, Smith AN (July 1969). "An experience of ulcerative colitis. I. Toxic dilation in 55 cases". Gastroenterology. 57 (1): 68–82. PMID 5305933.
  40. Schwarz A, Krause PH, Kunzendorf U, Keller F, Distler A (September 2000). "The outcome of acute interstitial nephritis: risk factors for the transition from acute to chronic interstitial nephritis". Clin. Nephrol. 54 (3): 179–90. PMID 11020015.
  41. Praga M, González E (June 2010). "Acute interstitial nephritis". Kidney Int. 77 (11): 956–61. doi:10.1038/ki.2010.89. PMID 20336051.
  42. Khwaja A (2012). "KDIGO clinical practice guidelines for acute kidney injury". Nephron Clin Pract. 120 (4): c179–84. doi:10.1159/000339789. PMID 22890468.
  43. Lameire N, Van Biesen W, Vanholder R (2005). "Acute renal failure". Lancet. 365 (9457): 417–30. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17831-3. PMID 15680458.
  44. Gudbjartsson T, Thoroddsen A, Petursdottir V, Hardarson S, Magnusson J, Einarsson GV (December 2005). "Effect of incidental detection for survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma: results of population-based study of 701 patients". Urology. 66 (6): 1186–91. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.009. PMID 16360438.
  45. Skinner DG, Colvin RB, Vermillion CD, Pfister RC, Leadbetter WF (November 1971). "Diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma. A clinical and pathologic study of 309 cases". Cancer. 28 (5): 1165–77. PMID 5125665.
  46. Queisser-Luft A, Stolz G, Wiesel A, Schlaefer K, Spranger J (July 2002). "Malformations in newborn: results based on 30,940 infants and fetuses from the Mainz congenital birth defect monitoring system (1990-1998)". Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 266 (3): 163–7. PMID 12197558.
  47. Sanna-Cherchi S, Ravani P, Corbani V, Parodi S, Haupt R, Piaggio G, Innocenti ML, Somenzi D, Trivelli A, Caridi G, Izzi C, Scolari F, Mattioli G, Allegri L, Ghiggeri GM (September 2009). "Renal outcome in patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract". Kidney Int. 76 (5): 528–33. doi:10.1038/ki.2009.220. PMID 19536081.
  48. Glassberg KI (June 2002). "Normal and abnormal development of the kidney: a clinician's interpretation of current knowledge". J. Urol. 167 (6): 2339–50, discussion 2350–1. PMID 11992035.
  49. Abboud H, Henrich WL (January 2010). "Clinical practice. Stage IV chronic kidney disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (1): 56–65. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp0906797. PMID 20054047.
  50. Denic A, Mathew J, Lerman LO, Lieske JC, Larson JJ, Alexander MP, Poggio E, Glassock RJ, Rule AD (June 2017). "Single-Nephron Glomerular Filtration Rate in Healthy Adults". N. Engl. J. Med. 376 (24): 2349–2357. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614329. PMC 5664219. PMID 28614683.
  51. Borowitz MJ, Craig FE, Digiuseppe JA, Illingworth AJ, Rosse W, Sutherland DR, Wittwer CT, Richards SJ (July 2010). "Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and related disorders by flow cytometry". Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 78 (4): 211–30. doi:10.1002/cyto.b.20525. PMID 20533382.
  52. Knochel JP (1982). "Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria". Annu. Rev. Med. 33: 435–43. doi:10.1146/annurev.me.33.020182.002251. PMID 6282181.
  53. Giannoglou GD, Chatzizisis YS, Misirli G (March 2007). "The syndrome of rhabdomyolysis: Pathophysiology and diagnosis". Eur. J. Intern. Med. 18 (2): 90–100. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2006.09.020. PMID 17338959.
  54. Coe FL (September 1983). "Uric acid and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis". Kidney Int. 24 (3): 392–403. PMID 6645213.
  55. Maalouf NM, Cameron MA, Moe OW, Sakhaee K (March 2004). "Novel insights into the pathogenesis of uric acid nephrolithiasis". Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 13 (2): 181–9. PMID 15202612.
  56. Ellis EN, Mauer SM, Sutherland DE, Steffes MW (February 1989). "Glomerular capillary morphology in normal humans". Lab. Invest. 60 (2): 231–6. PMID 2915517.
  57. Dickinson BL (August 2016). "Unraveling the immunopathogenesis of glomerular disease". Clin. Immunol. 169: 89–97. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2016.06.011. PMID 27373970.
  58. Trachtman H, Bergwerk A, Gauthier B (August 1994). "Isolated proteinuria in children. Natural history and indications for renal biopsy". Clin Pediatr (Phila). 33 (8): 468–72. doi:10.1177/000992289403300804. PMID 7955787.
  59. Pusey CD (October 2003). "Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease". Kidney Int. 64 (4): 1535–50. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00241.x. PMID 12969182.
  60. Bolton WK (November 1996). "Goodpasture's syndrome". Kidney Int. 50 (5): 1753–66. PMID 8914046.
  61. Kalluri R, Wilson CB, Weber M, Gunwar S, Chonko AM, Neilson EG, Hudson BG (October 1995). "Identification of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen as the common autoantigen in antibasement membrane disease and Goodpasture syndrome". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 6 (4): 1178–85. PMID 8589284.
  62. Noris M, Remuzzi G (April 2005). "Hemolytic uremic syndrome". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16 (4): 1035–50. doi:10.1681/ASN.2004100861. PMID 15728781.
  63. Goodship TH, Cook HT, Fakhouri F, Fervenza FC, Frémeaux-Bacchi V, Kavanagh D, Nester CM, Noris M, Pickering MC, Rodríguez de Córdoba S, Roumenina LT, Sethi S, Smith RJ (March 2017). "Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathy: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference". Kidney Int. 91 (3): 539–551. doi:10.1016/j.kint.2016.10.005. PMID 27989322.
  64. Loirat C, Fakhouri F, Ariceta G, Besbas N, Bitzan M, Bjerre A, Coppo R, Emma F, Johnson S, Karpman D, Landau D, Langman CB, Lapeyraque AL, Licht C, Nester C, Pecoraro C, Riedl M, van de Kar NC, Van de Walle J, Vivarelli M, Frémeaux-Bacchi V (January 2016). "An international consensus approach to the management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in children". Pediatr. Nephrol. 31 (1): 15–39. doi:10.1007/s00467-015-3076-8. PMID 25859752.
  65. Fwu CW, Eggers PW, Kimmel PL, Kusek JW, Kirkali Z (March 2013). "Emergency department visits, use of imaging, and drugs for urolithiasis have increased in the United States". Kidney Int. 83 (3): 479–86. doi:10.1038/ki.2012.419. PMC 3587650. PMID 23283137.
  66. Singh P, Enders FT, Vaughan LE, Bergstralh EJ, Knoedler JJ, Krambeck AE, Lieske JC, Rule AD (October 2015). "Stone Composition Among First-Time Symptomatic Kidney Stone Formers in the Community". Mayo Clin. Proc. 90 (10): 1356–65. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.07.016. PMC 4593754. PMID 26349951.
  67. Teichman JM (February 2004). "Clinical practice. Acute renal colic from ureteral calculus". N. Engl. J. Med. 350 (7): 684–93. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp030813. PMID 14960744.

Linked-in.jpg