Bladder cancer surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D.; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2] Shanshan Cen, M.D. [3]


Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for bladder cancer. The type of surgery depend on the type and the stage of the tumor.


  • Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for bladder cancer.
  • The type of surgery depend on the type and the stage of the tumor.
  • Transurethral resection (TUR)
  • A transurethral resection (TUR) is also called a cystoscopic resection or a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).[1]
  • Transurethral resection is used as the first treatment for all bladder cancers. It may be the only treatment needed for bladder cancer that hasn’t grown into the muscle layer of the bladder wall.[2]
  • For bladder cancer that has grown deeper into the bladder wall, a TUR usually removes most of the tumor and also acts as a biopsy before other treatment is given.[3][4]
  • Partial cystectomy
  • The patient has a small tumor that can easily be removed with clear margins.[6]
  • The tumor is in an abnormal pouch on the bladder wall.[7][8]
  • The patient isn't healthy enough to have more extensive surgery.
  • Radical cystectomy
  • Urinary diversion


  1. Bladder Cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015. Accessed on October, 7 2015
  2. Herr HW (January 2001). "Transurethral resection of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: 10-year outcome". J. Clin. Oncol. 19 (1): 89–93. doi:10.1200/JCO.2001.19.1.89. PMID 11134199.
  3. Richards KA, Smith ND, Steinberg GD (June 2014). "The importance of transurethral resection of bladder tumor in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review of novel technologies". J. Urol. 191 (6): 1655–64. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2014.01.087. PMID 24518761.
  4. Furuse H, Ozono S (August 2010). "Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT) for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: basic skills". Int. J. Urol. 17 (8): 698–9. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2010.02556.x. PMID 20649827.
  5. Dalbagni G, Genega E, Hashibe M, Zhang ZF, Russo P, Herr H, Reuter V (April 2001). "Cystectomy for bladder cancer: a contemporary series". J. Urol. 165 (4): 1111–6. PMID 11257649.
  6. Dandekar NP, Tongaonkar HB, Dalal AV, Kulkarni JN, Kamat MR (September 1995). "Partial cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer". J Surg Oncol. 60 (1): 24–9. PMID 7666665.
  7. Evans RA, Texter JH (September 1975). "Partial cystectomy in the treatment of bladder cancer". J. Urol. 114 (3): 391–3. PMID 1142521.
  8. Hollenbeck BK, Taub DA, Dunn RL, Wei JT (September 2005). "Quality of care: partial cystectomy for bladder cancer--a case of inappropriate use?". J. Urol. 174 (3): 1050–4, discussion 1054. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000169477.30477.3d. PMID 16094056.
  9. Gschwend JE, Fair WR, Vieweg J (August 2000). "Radical cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: contemporary results and remaining controversies". Eur. Urol. 38 (2): 121–30. doi:10.1159/000020268. PMID 10895001.
  10. May M, Braun KP, Richter W, Helke C, Vogler H, Hoschke B, Siegsmund M (August 2007). "[Radical cystectomy in the treatment of bladder cancer always in due time?]". Urologe A (in German). 46 (8): 913–9. doi:10.1007/s00120-007-1361-2. PMID 17676301.
  11. Gore JL, Yu HY, Setodji C, Hanley JM, Litwin MS, Saigal CS (January 2010). "Urinary diversion and morbidity after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer". Cancer. 116 (2): 331–9. doi:10.1002/cncr.24763. PMC 3057123. PMID 19924831.
  12. Jahnson S, Damm O, Hellsten S, Holmäng S, Liedberg F, Ljungberg B, Malmström PU, Månsson W, Rosell J, Wijkstöm H (March 2010). "Urinary diversion after cystectomy for bladder cancer: a population-based study in Sweden". Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 44 (2): 69–75. doi:10.3109/00365590903449357. PMID 20001606.