Bladder cancer epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D.; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Rim Halaby, M.D. [2] Farima Kahe M.D. [3] Shanshan Cen, M.D. [4]

Overview

The prevalence of bladder cancer is approximately 130.5 per 100,000 individuals in the United States. The incidence of bladder cancer is approximately 20.3 per 100,000 individuals in the United States. The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is 73 years. Males are more commonly affected with bladder cancer than females. Bladder cancer usually affects individuals of the white race. African American, Asian, and Hispanic individuals are less likely to develop bladder cancer.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

  • In the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of bladder cancer is 130.5 per 100,000 persons in 2011.[1][2]

Incidence

  • The incidence of bladder cancer is approximately 20.3 per 100,000 individuals in the United States, based on 2008-2012 data.[3][4]
  • The delay-adjusted incidence of bladder cancer in 2011 was estimated to be 20.74 per 100,000 persons in the United States.[1][5]
  • In 2011, the age-adjusted incidence of bladder cancer was 20.13 per 100,000 persons in the United States.[1]

Age

  • While the overall age-adjusted incidence of bladder cancer in the United States between 2007 and 2011 is 20.5 per 100,000, the age-adjusted incidence of bladder cancer by age category is:[1][6]
    • Under 65 years: 5.4 per 100,000
    • 65 and over: 124.7 per 100,000
  • The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is 73 years.[3]

Gender

  • In the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of bladder cancer by gender in 2011 is:[1][7]
    • In males: 228.9 per 100,000
    • In females: 56.6 per 100,000
  • In the United States, the delay-adjusted incidence of bladder cancer by gender in 2011 is:[1][8]
    • In males: 36.24 per 100,000 persons
    • In females: 8.98 per 100,000 persons
  • In the United States, the age-adjusted incidence of bladder cancer by gender on 2011 is:[1][9]
    • In males: 35.18 per 100,000 persons
    • In females: 8.72 per 100,000 persons
  • Shown below is an image depicting the delay-adjusted incidence and observed incidence of bladder cancer by gender and race in the United States between 1975 and 2011. These graphs are adapted from SEER: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.[1]

<figure-inline class="mw-default-size">Delay-adjusted incidence and observed incidence of bladder cancer by gender and race in the United States between 1975 and 2011.PNG</figure-inline>

Race

  • Shown below is a table depicting the age-adjusted prevalence of bladder cancer by race in 2011 in the United States.[1]
All Races White Black Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic
Age-adjusted prevalence 130.5 per 100,000 148.2 per 100,000 62.9 per 100,000 58.7 per 100,000 64.4 per 100,000
  • Shown below is an image depicting the incidence of bladder cancer by race in the United States between 1975 and 2011.[1]

<figure-inline class="mw-default-size">Incidence of bladder cancer by race in the United States between 1975 and 2011.PNG</figure-inline>

API: Asian/Pacific Islander; AI/AN: American Indian/ Alaska Native

Developed Countries

  • The incidence of bladder cancer is higher in Western countries as compared to developing countries.[10]

Developing Countries

  • In the late 1980's and early 1990's, approximately one third of cancer cases in Egypt were cases of bladder cancer. Given the improved treatment of schistosomiasis in Egypt, the incidence of bladder cancer has been decreasing.[14]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z,Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.
  2. Malats N, Real FX (April 2015). "Epidemiology of bladder cancer". Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 29 (2): 177–89, vii. doi:10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.001. PMID 25836927.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bladder Cancer.Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program 2015.http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/urinb.html
  4. Antoni S, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Znaor A, Jemal A, Bray F (January 2017). "Bladder Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Global Overview and Recent Trends". Eur. Urol. 71 (1): 96–108. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2016.06.010. PMID 27370177.
  5. Chavan S, Bray F, Lortet-Tieulent J, Goodman M, Jemal A (July 2014). "International variations in bladder cancer incidence and mortality". Eur. Urol. 66 (1): 59–73. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2013.10.001. PMID 24451595.
  6. Zhang Y, Zhu C, Curado MP, Zheng T, Boyle P (January 2012). "Changing patterns of bladder cancer in the USA: evidence of heterogeneous disease". BJU Int. 109 (1): 52–6. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10283.x. PMC 3218244. PMID 21592300.
  7. Dobruch J, Daneshmand S, Fisch M, Lotan Y, Noon AP, Resnick MJ, Shariat SF, Zlotta AR, Boorjian SA (February 2016). "Gender and Bladder Cancer: A Collaborative Review of Etiology, Biology, and Outcomes". Eur. Urol. 69 (2): 300–10. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2015.08.037. PMID 26346676.
  8. Fajkovic H, Halpern JA, Cha EK, Bahadori A, Chromecki TF, Karakiewicz PI, Breinl E, Merseburger AS, Shariat SF (August 2011). "Impact of gender on bladder cancer incidence, staging, and prognosis". World J Urol. 29 (4): 457–63. doi:10.1007/s00345-011-0709-9. PMID 21656173.
  9. Horstmann M, Witthuhn R, Falk M, Stenzl A (December 2008). "Gender-specific differences in bladder cancer: a retrospective analysis". Gend Med. 5 (4): 385–94. doi:10.1016/j.genm.2008.11.002. PMID 19108811.
  10. Burger M, Catto JW, Dalbagni G, Grossman HB, Herr H, Karakiewicz P; et al. (2013). "Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer". Eur Urol. 63 (2): 234–41. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.07.033. PMID 22877502.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Shokeir AA (2004). "Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder: pathology, diagnosis and treatment". BJU Int. 93 (2): 216–20. PMID 14690486.
  12. el-Mawla NG, el-Bolkainy MN, Khaled HM (2001). "Bladder cancer in Africa: update". Semin Oncol. 28 (2): 174–8. PMID 11301380.
  13. Ploeg M, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA (June 2009). "The present and future burden of urinary bladder cancer in the world". World J Urol. 27 (3): 289–93. doi:10.1007/s00345-009-0383-3. PMC 2694323. PMID 19219610.
  14. Zaghloul MS (2012). "Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis". J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 24 (4): 151–9. doi:10.1016/j.jnci.2012.08.002. PMID 23159285.

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