Bladder cancer staging

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Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D.; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shanshan Cen, M.D. [1] Farima Kahe M.D. [2]

Overview

Bladder cancer may be classified into several subtypes based on TNM system.

TNM Staging

TNM Definition
Ta Non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
  • Stage 0is
TNM Definition
Tis Non-invasive flat urothelial carcinoma
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
  • Stage I
TNM Definition
T1 The tumor is invasive. It has grown into the lamina propria but has not grown into the muscle of the bladder wall
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
  • Stage II
TNM Definition
T2a The tumor has grown into the inner half of the muscle of the bladder wall
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
TNM Definition
T2b The tumor has grown into the outer half of the muscle of the bladder wall
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
  • Stage III
TNM Definition
T3a The tumor has grown into the fatty tissue around the bladder but can only be seen through a microscope
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
TNM Definition
T3b The tumor has grown into the fatty tissue around the bladder and can be seen on imaging tests or be felt by the surgeon
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
TNM Definition
T4a The tumor has grown into the prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus or vagina
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
  • Stage IV
TNM Definition
T4b The tumor has grown into the pelvic wall or the abdominal wall
N0 No regional lymph node metastasis
M0 No distant metastasis
TNM Definition
Any T The tumor may be T1, T2, T3 or T4
N1, N2 or N3 The cancer has spread to regional lymph nodes
M0 No distant metastasis
TNM Definition
Any T The tumor may be T1, T2, T3 or T4
Any N The cancer may have spread to one or more regional lymph nodes
M1 Distant metastasis

References

  1. Rais-Bahrami S, Pietryga JA, Nix JW (March 2016). "Contemporary role of advanced imaging for bladder cancer staging". Urol. Oncol. 34 (3): 124–33. doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.08.018. PMID 26427696.
  2. McKibben MJ, Woods ME (April 2015). "Preoperative imaging for staging bladder cancer". Curr Urol Rep. 16 (4): 22. doi:10.1007/s11934-015-0496-8. PMID 25724433.
  3. Sun M, Trinh QD (April 2015). "Diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer". Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 29 (2): 205–18, vii. doi:10.1016/j.hoc.2014.10.013. PMID 25836929.
  4. Bladder Cancer. Canadian Cancer Society 2015. http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/bladder/staging/?region=ab Accessed on October, 6 2015

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