Bladder cancer risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D.; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2] Shanshan Cen, M.D. [3]


Common risk factors in the development of bladder cancer are smoking, occupational exposure to chemicals, chronic bladder irritation, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, arsenic, personal history of cancer in the urinary tract, congenital bladder anomalies, and aristolochic acids.

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

  • Less common risk factors in the development of bladder cancer include:[7][8][9][10]


  1. Janković S, Radosavljević V (2007). "Risk factors for bladder cancer". Tumori. 93 (1): 4–12. PMID 17455864.
  2. Letašiová S, Medve'ová A, Šovčíková A, Dušinská M, Volkovová K, Mosoiu C, Bartonová A (June 2012). "Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors". Environ Health. 11 Suppl 1: S11. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-S1-S11. PMC 3388449. PMID 22759493.
  3. Ugnat AM, Luo W, Semenciw R, Mao Y (2004). "Occupational exposure to chemical and petrochemical industries and bladder cancer risk in four western Canadian provinces". Chronic Dis Can. 25 (2): 7–15. PMID 15554606.
  4. Bhatt VR, Loberiza FR, Tandra P, Krishnamurthy J, Shrestha R, Wang J (January 2014). "Risk factors, therapy and survival outcomes of small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of urinary bladder". Rare Tumors. 6 (1): 5043. doi:10.4081/rt.2014.5043. PMC 3977167. PMID 24711904.
  5. Vermeulen SH, Hanum N, Grotenhuis AJ, Castaño-Vinyals G, van der Heijden AG, Aben KK, Mysorekar IU, Kiemeney LA (February 2015). "Recurrent urinary tract infection and risk of bladder cancer in the Nijmegen bladder cancer study". Br. J. Cancer. 112 (3): 594–600. doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.601. PMC 4453642. PMID 25429525.
  6. Hess MJ, Zhan EH, Foo DK, Yalla SV (2003). "Bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury". J Spinal Cord Med. 26 (4): 335–8. PMID 14992333.
  7. Gu J, Wu X (May 2011). "Genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer risk and outcome". Per Med. 8 (3): 365–374. doi:10.2217/PME.11.15. PMC 3172962. PMID 21927616.
  8. Zhang X, Zhang Y (September 2015). "Bladder Cancer and Genetic Mutations". Cell Biochem. Biophys. 73 (1): 65–9. doi:10.1007/s12013-015-0574-z. PMID 27352265.
  9. Castaño-Vinyals G, Cantor KP, Malats N, Tardon A, Garcia-Closas R, Serra C, Carrato A, Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Silverman D, Dosemeci M, Kogevinas M (January 2008). "Air pollution and risk of urinary bladder cancer in a case-control study in Spain". Occup Environ Med. 65 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1136/oem.2007.034348. PMID 17634245.
  10. Fortuny J, Kogevinas M, Zens MS, Schned A, Andrew AS, Heaney J, Kelsey KT, Karagas MR (August 2007). "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of bladder cancer: a population based case control study". BMC Urol. 7: 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2490-7-13. PMC 2018698. PMID 17692123.