Bladder cancer natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Farima Kahe M.D. [2] Rim Halaby, M.D. [3] Shanshan Cen, M.D. [4]

Overview

Common complications of bladder cancer include metastasis, anemia, hydronephrosis, urethral stricture, and urinary incontinence. Prognosis is generally good, and the 5-year survival rate is approximately 77.4%. The prognosis varies with the stages of tumor; carcinoma in situ have the most favorable prognosis.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Natural History

  • The symptoms of bladder cancer usually develop in the 6th and 7th decade of life, and start with symptoms such as hematuria, difficulty urinating and dysuria.[1][2]

Complications

Prognosis

  • Based on data from 2005-2011, the 5-year survival rate of patients with bladder cancer is approximately 77.4%.[7]
  • Between 2004 and 2010, the 5-year relative survival of patients with bladder cancer was 79.1%.[8]
  • When stratified by age, the 5-year relative survival of patients with bladder cancer was 83.8% and 74.1% for patients <65 and ≥ 65 years of age respectively.[8]
  • The survival of patients with bladder cancer varies with the stage of the disease. Shown below is a table depicting the 5-year relative survival by the stage of bladder cancer:[8]
Stage 5-year relative survival (%), (2004-2010)
All stages 77.4%
In situ 96.2%
Localized 69.2%
Regional 33.7%
Distant 5.5%
Unstaged 48.7%
  • Shown below is an image depicting the 5-year conditional relative survival (probability of surviving in the next 5-years given the cohort has already survived 0, 1, 3 years) between 2004 and 2010 of bladder cancer by stage at diagnosis according to SEER. These graphs are adapted from SEER: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.[8]

5-year conditional relative survival (probability of surviving in the next 5-years given the cohort has already survived 0, 1, 3 years) between 2004 and 2010 of bladder cancer by stage at diagnosis according to SEER.

References

  1. Aliramaji A, Kaseean A, Yousefnia Pasha YR, Shafi H, Kamali S, Safari M, Moudi E (2015). "Age distribution types of bladder cancers and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking". Caspian J Intern Med. 6 (2): 82–6. PMC 4478456. PMID 26221505.
  2. Gupta P, Jain M, Kapoor R, Muruganandham K, Srivastava A, Mandhani A (April 2009). "Impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder cancer". Indian J Urol. 25 (2): 207–10. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.52916. PMC 2710066. PMID 19672348.
  3. Pagliaro LC, Sharma P (March 2006). "Review of metastatic bladder cancer". Minerva Urol Nefrol. 58 (1): 53–71. PMID 16760884.
  4. Anderson TS, Regine WF, Kryscio R, Patchell RA (May 2003). "Neurologic complications of bladder carcinoma: a review of 359 cases". Cancer. 97 (9): 2267–72. doi:10.1002/cncr.11354. PMID 12712482.
  5. Taylor JA, Kuchel GA (March 2009). "Bladder cancer in the elderly: clinical outcomes, basic mechanisms, and future research direction". Nat Clin Pract Urol. 6 (3): 135–44. doi:10.1038/ncpuro1315. PMC 2957872. PMID 19265855.
  6. Shinagare AB, Ramaiya NH, Jagannathan JP, Fennessy FM, Taplin ME, Van den Abbeele AD (January 2011). "Metastatic pattern of bladder cancer: correlation with the characteristics of the primary tumor". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196 (1): 117–22. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.5036. PMID 21178055.
  7. Bladder Cancer. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program 2015.http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/urinb.html
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z,Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.

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