Bladder cancer differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Home logo1.png

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shanshan Cen, M.D. [2]

Overview

Bladder cancer must be differentiated from renal cancer, renal stones, prostate cancer, and cystitis.

Differential Diagnosis

The most common presentation of bladder cancer is hematuria; however in the advanced cases, the presentation can be bladder mass.

Bladder cancer must be differentiated from other causes of hematuria as in the below table:

Diseases Clinical manifestations Para-clinical findings Gold standard
Symptoms Physical examina
Lab Findings Diagnosi
Low back pain Fever Nausea/

Vomiting

Urinary symptoms Hypertension Pitting edema Other
Dysuria Frequency Oliguria
Glomerular diseases IgA nephropathy[1][2] (Berger nephropathy) + - - - + + + - - Biopsy:

IgA deposited in a diffuse granular pattern in the mesangium

Biopsy
Hereditary nephritis[3][4] (Alport syndrome) - - - - - - + -
  • Cataract
  • Hearing loss
Biopsy: Genetic analysis
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis[5][6] +/- + - - + + + +

Biopsy

Biopsy
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis[7][8][9] - - - - - - + + Biopsy
  • Segmental solidification in the perihilar region and peripheral areas, especially the tubular pole
  • Coarsely granular deposits -of IgM and C3
Biopsy
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis[10][11][12] + + + - - - + - Biopsy: Biopsy
Lupus nephritis[13][14] - + - - - - + +
  • Foamy dark urine
  • Weight gain
Biopsy,
  • Different pathologies, CLICK HERE for more information.
Biopsy
Fabry disease - - - - - - + + - Biopsy Biopsy
Disease Low back pain Fever Nausea/

Vomiting

Dysuria Frequency Oliguria Hypertension Pitting edema Other Lab Findings Diagnosis method Gold standard
Tubulointerstitial diseases[15][16][17] + + + Rash Biopsy: Renal biopsy
Nephrolithiasis[18][19] + ± + ± ± ±
  • Radiating pain to groin
Abdominal CT scan without contrast
Reflux nephropathy (hydronephrosis) + + - - - - - +
Malignancy Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)[20][21] - - - - - - ± ±
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)[22][23] - - - - - - - -

Biopsy:

Biopsy
Bladder cancer[27][28][29] - - - - ± ± - - Suprapubic pain Ultrasound, CT scan, Biopsy Biopsy
Prostate cancer[30][31] ± - - - ± ± - - - Ultrasound, CT scan, Biopsy Biopsy
Disease Low back pain Fever Nausea/

Vomiting

Dysuria Frequency Oliguria Hypertension Pitting edema Other Lab Findings Diagnosis method Gold standard
Familial diseases Polycystic kidney disease[32][33] + - - - - - + + Ultrasound:
  • Unilateral or bilateral cysts

CT:

  • Hyperdense appearance,
  • Septations
  • Calcifications

Genetic testing demonstrates:

  • Frame insertions/deletions
  • Non-canonical splice site alterations
  • Combined missense changes

Biopsy:

  • Interstitial fibrosis
  • Tubular atrophy
  • Thickening and lamellation of tubular basement membranes
Ultrasound
Vascular diseases Renal vein thrombosis[34][35] + + + - - - - - Renal venography: Gold standard
Wegner's granulomatosis polyangiitis[36][37][38][39] - - - - - +/- + + CT chest:

Biopsy:

Biopsy
Henoch-Schönlein purpura[40][41] - - - - - +/- +/- + Biopsy:

IgA deposited in a diffuse granular pattern in the mesangium

Renal biopsy, and clinical syndrome
Disease Low back pain Fever Nausea/

Vomiting

Dysuria Frequency Oliguria Hypertension Pitting edema Other Lab Findings Diagnosis method Gold standard
Lower urinary tract diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia +/- - - + + - - -
  • Nocturia
  • Other voiding symptoms
    • Slow urinary stream
    • Splitting or spraying of the urinary stream
    • Intermittent urinary stream
    • Hesitancy
    • Straining to void
    • Terminal dribbling
  • Urinalysis to rule out UTI
  • Elevated BUN/Cr
  • High PSA values
  • Urine cytology to screen for bladder cancer
  • Biopsy to rule out cancer
Biopsy
Urolithiasis[42][43][44] + +/- + + + + - - Abdominppelvic CT scan without contrast Abdominppelvic CT scan without contrast
Disease Low back pain Fever Nausea/

Vomiting

Dysuria Frequency Oliguria Hypertension Pitting edema Other Lab Findings Diagnosis method Gold standard
Infectious diseases Pyelonephritis[45][46] + + + + + + - - CT and ultrasound: -
Cystitis[47][48] - - - + + + - - Ultrasound:
  • Presence of gas in the bladder wall.
  • Also, help to detect the presence of a tumor or a stone.
Urine culture
Prostatitis[49][50] - + - + + + - -
  • Body aches
Ultrasound:
  • Focal hypoechoic region located in the peripheral part of the prostate

CT scan:

-
Urethritis[51][52] -/- + - + + + - -

CT scan:

  • Diffuse, circumferential urothelial wall thickening and contrast-enhancement
  • Periureteric or perinephric fat stranding.
Urine culture
Urogenital trauma Inserted bladder or ureteral catheters - - - + + + - -
  • Retrograde urethrogram (RUG)
  • Retrograde urethrogram (RUG)

Lower abdominal mass can be classified to the gynecological and non-gynecological causes. Bladder cancer in the advanced cases can present as a bladder mass. Below table discusses lower abdominal mass causes:

References

  1. Donadio JV, Grande JP (2002). "IgA nephropathy". N Engl J Med. 347 (10): 738–48. doi:10.1056/NEJMra020109. PMID 12213946.
  2. Suzuki H, Kiryluk K, Novak J, Moldoveanu Z, Herr AB, Renfrow MB; et al. (2011). "The pathophysiology of IgA nephropathy". J Am Soc Nephrol. 22 (10): 1795–803. doi:10.1681/ASN.2011050464. PMID 21949093.
  3. McCarthy PA, Maino DM (2000). "Alport syndrome: a review". Clin Eye Vis Care. 12 (3–4): 139–150. PMID 11137428.
  4. Bodziak KA, Hammond WS, Molitoris BA (1994). "Inherited diseases of the glomerular basement membrane". Am J Kidney Dis. 23 (4): 605–18. PMID 8154501.
  5. Yoshizawa N, Yamakami K, Fujino M, Oda T, Tamura K, Matsumoto K, Sugisaki T, Boyle MD (July 2004). "Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: characterization of the antigen and associated immune response". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 15 (7): 1785–93. PMID 15213266.
  6. Oda T, Yoshizawa N, Yamakami K, Tamura K, Kuroki A, Sugisaki T, Sawanobori E, Higashida K, Ohtomo Y, Hotta O, Kumagai H, Miura S (September 2010). "Localization of nephritis-associated plasmin receptor in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis". Hum. Pathol. 41 (9): 1276–85. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2010.02.006. PMID 20708459.
  7. Kwoh C, Shannon MB, Miner JH, Shaw A (2006). "Pathogenesis of nonimmune glomerulopathies". Annu Rev Pathol. 1: 349–74. doi:10.1146/annurev.pathol.1.110304.100119. PMID 18039119.
  8. Reidy K, Kaskel FJ (March 2007). "Pathophysiology of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis". Pediatr. Nephrol. 22 (3): 350–4. doi:10.1007/s00467-006-0357-2. PMC 1794138. PMID 17216262.
  9. D'Agati VD, Fogo AB, Bruijn JA, Jennette JC (2004). "Pathologic classification of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a working proposal". Am J Kidney Dis. 43 (2): 368–82. PMID 14750104.
  10. Couser WG (1998). "Pathogenesis of glomerular damage in glomerulonephritis". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 13 Suppl 1: 10–5. PMID 9507491.
  11. Atkins RC, Nikolic-Paterson DJ, Song Q, Lan HY (1996). "Modulators of crescentic glomerulonephritis". J Am Soc Nephrol. 7 (11): 2271–8. PMID 8959617.
  12. Jennette JC (March 2003). "Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis". Kidney Int. 63 (3): 1164–77. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00843.x. PMID 12631105.
  13. Schwartz N, Goilav B, Putterman C (September 2014). "The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of lupus nephritis". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 26 (5): 502–9. doi:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000089. PMC 4221732. PMID 25014039.
  14. Giannico G, Fogo AB (2013). "Lupus nephritis: is the kidney biopsy currently necessary in the management of lupus nephritis?". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 8 (1): 138–45. doi:10.2215/CJN.03400412. PMID 22977215.
  15. Baker, R. J.; Pusey, C. D. (2004). "The changing profile of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis". Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 19 (1): 8–11. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfg464. ISSN 0931-0509.
  16. Kelly C, Tomaszewski J, Neilson E. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of tubulointerstitial injury. In: Tisher C, Brenner B, eds, Renal Pathology: With Clinical and Functional Correlations, 2nd Edn., Vol. 1. J. B. Lippincott & Co, Philadelphia, PA, 1994; 699–722
  17. Dharmarajan TS, Yoo J, Russell RO, Boateng YA. Acute post streptococcal interstitial nephritis in an adult and review of the literature. Int Urol Nephrol 1999; 31:145
  18. Hochreiter W, Knoll T, Hess B (February 2003). "[Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy of non-calcium kidney calculi]". Ther Umsch (in German). 60 (2): 89–97. doi:10.1024/0040-5930.60.2.89. PMID 12649987.
  19. Trinchieri A (February 2013). "Diet and renal stone formation". Minerva Med. 104 (1): 41–54. PMID 23392537.
  20. Cohen HT, McGovern FJ (2005). "Renal-cell carcinoma". N Engl J Med. 353 (23): 2477–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMra043172. PMID 16339096.
  21. Leveridge MJ, Bostrom PJ, Koulouris G, Finelli A, Lawrentschuk N (June 2010). "Imaging renal cell carcinoma with ultrasonography, CT and MRI". Nat Rev Urol. 7 (6): 311–25. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2010.63. PMID 20479778.
  22. Jolly RD, Stellwagen E, Babul J, Vodkaĭlo LV, Titov VL, Moldomusaev DM, Maianskiĭ AN (November 1975). "Mannosidosis of Angus Cattle: a prototype control program for some genetic diseases". Adv Vet Sci Comp Med. 19 (23): 1–21. PMID 1978.
  23. Stefanowicz J, Sierota D, Balcerska A, Stoba C (2004). "[Wilms' tumour of unfavorable histology--results of treatment with the SIOP 93-01 protocol at the Gdańsk centre. Preliminary report]". Med Wieku Rozwoj (in Polish). 8 (2 Pt 1): 197–200. PMID 15738594.
  24. Hartman DS, Sanders RC (April 1982). "Wilms' tumor versus neuroblastoma: usefulness of ultrasound in differentiation". J Ultrasound Med. 1 (3): 117–22. PMID 6152936.
  25. De Campo JF (1986). "Ultrasound of Wilms' tumor". Pediatr Radiol. 16 (1): 21–4. PMID 3003660.
  26. Cahan LD (1985). "Failure of encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis procedure in moyamoya disease". Pediatr Neurosci. 12 (1): 58–62. PMID 4080660.
  27. Pons F, Orsola A, Morote J, Bellmunt J (2011). "Variant forms of bladder cancer: basic considerations on treatment approaches". Curr Oncol Rep. 13 (3): 216–21. doi:10.1007/s11912-011-0161-4. PMID 21360040.
  28. Metts MC, Metts JC, Milito SJ, Thomas CR (June 2000). "Bladder cancer: a review of diagnosis and management". J Natl Med Assoc. 92 (6): 285–94. PMC 2640522. PMID 10918764.
  29. Rom M, Kuehhas FE, Djavan B (2007). "New findings in bladder and prostate cancer: highlights of the 22nd annual congress of the European association of urology, march 21-24, 2007, berlin, Germany". Rev Urol. 9 (4): 214–9. PMC 2199502. PMID 18231618.
  30. Chung SD, Liu SP, Lin HC (2013). "Association between prostate cancer and urinary calculi: a population-based study". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e57743. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057743. PMC 3581486. PMID 23451265.
  31. Rom M, Kuehhas FE, Djavan B (2007). "New findings in bladder and prostate cancer: highlights of the 22nd annual congress of the European association of urology, march 21-24, 2007, berlin, Germany". Rev Urol. 9 (4): 214–9. PMC 2199502. PMID 18231618.
  32. Gabow PA (July 1993). "Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 329 (5): 332–42. doi:10.1056/NEJM199307293290508. PMID 8321262.
  33. Adeva M, El-Youssef M, Rossetti S, Kamath PS, Kubly V, Consugar MB, Milliner DM, King BF, Torres VE, Harris PC (January 2006). "Clinical and molecular characterization defines a broadened spectrum of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)". Medicine (Baltimore). 85 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1097/01.md.0000200165.90373.9a. PMID 16523049.
  34. U. Kuhlmann, J. Steurer, A. Bollinger, G. Pouliadis, J. Briner & W. Siegenthaler (1981). "[Incidence and clinical significance of thromboses and thrombo-embolic complications in nephrotic syndrome patients]". Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift. 111 (27–28): 1034–1040. PMID 7268357. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  35. F. Llach, S. Papper & S. G. Massry (1980). "The clinical spectrum of renal vein thrombosis: acute and chronic". The American journal of medicine. 69 (6): 819–827. PMID 7446547. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  36. Pagnoux C (2016). "Updates in ANCA-associated vasculitis". Eur J Rheumatol. 3 (3): 122–133. doi:10.5152/eurjrheum.2015.0043. PMID 27733943.
  37. Lee KS, Kim TS, Fujimoto K, Moriya H, Watanabe H, Tateishi U, Ashizawa K, Johkoh T, Kim EA, Kwon OJ (2003). "Thoracic manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis: CT findings in 30 patients". Eur Radiol. 13 (1): 43–51. doi:10.1007/s00330-002-1422-2. PMID 12541109.
  38. Kallenberg CG, Heeringa P, Stegeman CA (2006). "Mechanisms of Disease: pathogenesis and treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitides". Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2 (12): 661–70. doi:10.1038/ncprheum0355. PMID 17133251.
  39. Jennette JC, Falk RJ (November 1997). "Small-vessel vasculitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (21): 1512–23. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711203372106. PMID 9366584.
  40. Jennette JC, Falk RJ (November 1997). "Small-vessel vasculitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (21): 1512–23. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711203372106. PMID 9366584.
  41. Chen JY, Mao JH (February 2015). "Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis in children: incidence, pathogenesis and management". World J Pediatr. 11 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1007/s12519-014-0534-5. PMID 25557596.
  42. Hochreiter W, Knoll T, Hess B (February 2003). "[Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy of non-calcium kidney calculi]". Ther Umsch (in German). 60 (2): 89–97. doi:10.1024/0040-5930.60.2.89. PMID 12649987.
  43. Flannigan R, Choy WH, Chew B, Lange D (June 2014). "Renal struvite stones--pathogenesis, microbiology, and management strategies". Nat Rev Urol. 11 (6): 333–41. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2014.99. PMID 24818849.
  44. Pereira DJ, Schoolwerth AC, Pais VM (March 2015). "Cystinuria: current concepts and future directions". Clin. Nephrol. 83 (3): 138–46. PMID 25685869.
  45. Pereira DJ, Schoolwerth AC, Pais VM (March 2015). "Cystinuria: current concepts and future directions". Clin. Nephrol. 83 (3): 138–46. PMID 25685869.
  46. Rosen DA, Hooton TM, Stamm WE, Humphrey PA, Hultgren SJ (2007). "Detection of intracellular bacterial communities in human urinary tract infection". PLoS Med. 4 (12): e329. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040329. PMC 2140087. PMID 18092884.
  47. Franco AV (2005). "Recurrent urinary tract infections". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 19 (6): 861–73. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2005.08.003. PMID 16298166.
  48. Franco AV (2005). "Recurrent urinary tract infections". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 19 (6): 861–73. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2005.08.003. PMID 16298166.
  49. John N. Krieger, Ulrich Dobrindt, Donald E. Riley & Eric Oswald (2011). "Acute Escherichia coli prostatitis in previously health young men: bacterial virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and clinical outcomes". Urology. 77 (6): 1420–1425. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2010.12.059. PMID 21459419. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  50. Sharp VJ, Takacs EB, Powell CR (2010). "Prostatitis: diagnosis and treatment". Am Fam Physician. 82 (4): 397–406. PMID 20704171.
  51. McNagny SE, Parker RM, Zenilman JM, Lewis JS (1992). "Urinary leukocyte esterase test: a screening method for the detection of asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in men". J. Infect. Dis. 165 (3): 573–6. PMID 1538163.
  52. Brill JR (2010). "Diagnosis and treatment of urethritis in men". Am Fam Physician. 81 (7): 873–8. PMID 20353145.

Linked-in.jpg