Upper gastrointestinal bleeding causes
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS 
There are many causes for upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage. Causes are usually anatomically divided into their location in the upper gastrointestinal tract, which could either be esophageal (for example esophageal varices) or gastric (an example is gastric ulcer) or duodenal e.g. duodenal ulcer. Patients are also usually stratified into having either variceal or non-variceal sources of upper GI hemorrhage, as the two have different treatment algorithms and prognosis. Other causes could be from infectious diseases, medication side effects, trauma or malignancy and e.t.c.
Life Threatening Causes
Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.
The most common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding include:
- Duodenal ulcer
- Esophageal varices
- Gastric tumors
- Gastric ulcer
- Mallory-Weiss syndrome
- Peptic ulcer
Less common causes
Other less common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding include:
- Gastric erosions/gastropathy
- Acute erosive gastritis caused by drugs, radiation, infection, or direct trauma
- Reactive gastropathy, which may be due to bile reflux, particularly after partial gastrectomy
- Portal hypertensive gastropathy, which results in increased friability of gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis
- Dieulafoy lesions
- Dilated aberrant submucosal vessels that erode the overlying epithelium in the absence of an ulcer
- Gastric varices
- Gastric antral vascular ectasia
- Dilated gastric vessels of unknown etiology that cause chronic UGIB and iron-deficiency anemia
- Bleeding from the hepatobiliary tract
- Aortoenteric fistulas
- Most commonly involves the lower duodenum.
- Common causes include aortic aneurysms or prosthetic vascular grafts, syphilis and tuberculosis
- Crohn's disease involving the upper gastrointestinal tract
- Metastatic malignancy involving the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as melanoma or renal cell carcinoma
- Hemosuccus pancreaticus
- Pancreatic inflammation or cancer may result in bleeding into the pancreatic duct, which connects to the duodenum
|Causes of Acute Upper GI bleeding|
Causes by Organ System
Causes in Alphabetical Order
- ↑ Pilotto A, Franceschi M, Leandro G, Paris F, Niro V, Longo MG, D'Ambrosio LP, Andriulli A, Di Mario F (2003). "The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in elderly users of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: the role of gastroprotective drugs". Aging Clin Exp Res. 15 (6): 494–9. PMID 14959953.
- ↑ Hreinsson JP, Kalaitzakis E, Gudmundsson S, Björnsson ES (2013). "Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: incidence, etiology and outcomes in a population-based setting". Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 48 (4): 439–47. doi:10.3109/00365521.2012.763174. PMC 3613943. PMID 23356751.
- ↑ Drini M (2017). "Peptic ulcer disease and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs". Aust Prescr. 40 (3): 91–93. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2017.037. PMC 5478398. PMID 28798512.
- ↑ Kaviani MJ, Pirastehfar M, Azari A, Saberifiroozi M (2010). "Etiology and outcome of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a study from South of Iran". Saudi J Gastroenterol. 16 (4): 253–9. doi:10.4103/1319-3767.70608. PMC 2995092. PMID 20871188.
- ↑ Davidson AT (1985). "Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: causes and treatment". J Natl Med Assoc. 77 (11): 944–5. PMC 2571206. PMID 4078920.
- ↑ van Leerdam ME (2008). "Epidemiology of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 22 (2): 209–24. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2007.10.011. PMID 18346679.