Second degree AV block causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Mahmoud Sakr, M.D. [3]


Life threatening causes of second degree AV block include acute myocardial infarction, acute rheumatic fever, myocarditis, and severe hypothermia. Common causes include endocarditis, digoxin, dilated cardiomyopathy, diltiazem, and calcific aortic stenosis.


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening conditions can result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated[1].

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Acute myocardial infarction, acute rheumatic fever, ASD, dilated cardiomyopathy, Ebstein's anomaly, hypersensitive carotid sinus syndrome, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Lev's disease, myocardial bridging, myocarditis, normal variants, post aortic valve replacement, post catheter ablation for arrhythmias, post closure of a ventricular septal defect, post mitral valve replacement, tetralogy of Fallot, endocardial cushion defect, transposition of the great vessels, valvular heart disease, VSD
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Amiodarone, beta-blockers, digitalis, calcium channel blockers, cholinesterase inhibitors, disopyramide, dofetilide, dolasetron, donepezil, eslicarbazepine acetate, fesoterodine, fingolimod, flecainide, ibutilide, lacosamide, magnesium, paliperidone, pramipexole, procainamide, propafenone, propoxyphene, quinidine, sotalol, terodiline
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Hyperthyroidism, myxedema, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
Environmental Hypothermia
Gastroenterologic Hemochromatosis
Genetic Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Fabry disease, glycogenosis type 2b, hereditary neuromuscular disease, Kearns-Sayre syndrome
Hematologic Multiple myeloma Lymphoma[6]
Iatrogenic Post aortic valve replacement, post catheter ablation for arrhythmias, post closure of a ventricular septal defect, post mitral valve replacement
Infectious Disease Acute rheumatic fever, Chagas disease, diphtheria, Lyme disease, myocarditis, neonatal lupus erythematosus, protozoal infection, sarcoidosis, SLE, tuberculosis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Ankylosing spondylitis, hereditary neuromuscular disease, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, mitochondrial genome inherited conditions, muscular dystrophy
Neurologic Enhanced vagal tone
Nutritional / Metabolic Fabry disease, glycogenosis type 2b
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Multiple myeloma
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
Renal / Electrolyte Hyperkalemia, hypokalemia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Ankylosing spondylitis, dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, SLE
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Amyloidosis, degenerative diseases

Causes in Alphabetical Order


  1. Mangi MA, Jones WM, Napier L. PMID 29493981. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Misumida N, Ogunbayo GO, Kim SM, Abdel-Latif A, Ziada KM, Elayi CS (November 2018). "Frequency and Significance of High-Degree Atrioventricular Block and Sinoatrial Node Dysfunction in Patients With Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction". Am. J. Cardiol. 122 (10): 1598–1603. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.08.001. PMID 30227965.
  3. Barold SS, Herweg B (December 2012). "Second-degree atrioventricular block revisited". Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol. 23 (4): 296–304. doi:10.1007/s00399-012-0240-8. PMID 23224264.
  4. Kamatani T, Akizuki A, Kondo S, Shirota T (Fall 2016). "Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block Occurring After Tooth Extraction". Anesth Prog. 63 (3): 156–9. doi:10.2344/15-00042.1. PMC 5011958. PMID 27585419.
  5. Wogan JM, Lowenstein SR, Gordon GS (1993). "Second-degree atrioventricular block: Mobitz type II". J Emerg Med. 11 (1): 47–54. doi:10.1016/0736-4679(93)90009-v. PMID 8445186.
  6. Menicagli F, Lanza A, Sbrocca F, Baldi A, Spugnini EP (2016). "A case of advanced second-degree atrioventricular block in a ferret secondary to lymphoma". Open Vet J. 6 (1): 68–70. doi:10.4314/ovj.v6i1.10. PMC 4833871. PMID 27200273.