Hyperparathyroidism differential diagnosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Home logo1.png

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Anmol Pitliya, M.B.B.S. M.D.[2]

Overview

There are three types of hyperparathyroidism (primary, secondary, and tertiary) and should be differentiated between each other. Hyperparathyroidism should be differentiated from other causes of hypercalcemia. Causes of hypercalcemia other than hyperparathyroidism include familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, hypercalcemia related to malignancy, medication-induced hypercalcemia, hypercalcemia due to nutritional disorders, and hypercalcemia related to granulomatous diseases.

Differentiating hyperparathyroidism from other diseases

There are three types of hyperparathyroidism (primary, secondary, and tertiary) and should be differentiated between each other. Hyperparathyroidism should be differentiated from other causes of hypercalcemia. Causes of hypercalcemia include:



Differential diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism on the basis of hypercalcemia
Disorder Mechanism of hypercalcemia Clinical features Laboratory findings Imaging & diagnostic modalities
PTH Calcium Phosphate Other findings
Hyperparathyroidism Primary hyperparathyroidism Increase in secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from a primary process in parathyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone causes increase in serum calcium.
  • Usually asymptomatic
  • Hypercalcemia detected on routine biochemical panel
↓/Normal Normal/↑ calcitriol Findings of bone resorption:

Preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland:

Predicting post-operative success:

Secondary hyperparathyroidism Increase in secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from a secondary process. Parathyroid hormone causes increase in serum calcium after long periods. ↓/Normal --
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism Continuous elevation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) even after successful treatment of the secondary cause of elevated parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone causes increase in serum calcium. --
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia This is a genetic disorder caused my mutation in calcium-sensing receptor gene.
  • A benign condition
  • Does not require treatment
Normal/↑ Normal/↑ -- --
  • Urinary calcium/creatinine clearance ratio
Malignancy[1][2] Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy[3][4][5][6] Tumor cells secretes parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) which has similar action as parathyroid hormone. -- ↓/Normal PTHrP

Normal/↑ calcitriol

Osteolytic tumors[7][8] Multiple myeloma produces osteolysis of bones causing hypercalcemia. Osteolytic metasteses can cause bone resorption causing hypercalcemia. -- --
Production of calcitirol[9] Some tumors has ectopic activity of 1-alpha-hydroxylase leading to increased production of calcitriol. Calcitriol is active form of vitamin D and causes hypercalcemia. -- -- Calcitriol
Ectopic parathyroid hormone[10] Some tumors leads to ectopic production of parathyroid hormone. ↓/Normal Normal/↑ calcitriol
Medication induced Lithium[11] Lithium lowers urinary calcium and causes hypercalcemia. Lithium has been reported to cause an increase in parathyroid hormone and enlargement if parathyroid gland after weeks to months of therapy. -- --
Thiazide diuretics[12] Thiazide diuretics lowers urinary calcium excretion and causes hypercalcemia. -- -- -- --
Nutritional Milk-alkali syndrome Hypercalcemia is be caused by high intake of calcium carbonate. -- -- calcitriol
Vitamin D toxicity[13][14][15] Excess vitamin D causes increased absorption of calcium from intestine causing hypercalcemia. -- -- Vitamin D (calcidiol and/or calcitriol) --
Granulomatous disease Sarcoidosis[18] Hypercalcemia is causes by endogeous production of calcitriol by disease-activated macrophages. -- -- Calcitriol

ACE levels

DIfferentiating Hyperparathyroidism from other diseases

Disease Gene Chromosome Differentiating Features Components of MEN Diagnosis
Parathyroid Pitutary Pancreas
von Hippel-Lindau syndrome Von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor 3p25.3
  • Angiomatosis, 
  • Hemangioblastomas,
  • Pheochromocytoma, 
  • Renal cell carcinoma,
  • Pancreatic cysts (pancreatic serous cystadenoma)
  • Endolymphatic sac tumor,
  • Bilateral papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis (men) or broad ligament of the uterus (women)
- - +
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • In hereditary VHL, disease techniques such as Southern blotting and gene sequencing can be used to analyse DNA and identify mutations.
Carney complex  PRKAR1A 17q23-q24
  • Myxomas of the heart
  • Hyperpigmentation of the skin (lentiginosis)
  • Endocrine (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease)
- - -
  • Clinical diagnosis
Neurofibromatosis type 1 RAS 17 - - - Prenatal
  • Chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis can be used to detect NF-1 in the fetus.

Postnatal Cardinal Clinical Features" are required for positive diagnosis.

  • Six or more café-au-lait spots over 5 mm in greatest diameter in pre-pubertal individuals and over 15 mm in greatest diameter in post-pubertal individuals.
  • Two or more neurofibromas of any type or 1 plexiform neurofibroma
  • Freckling in the axillary (Crowe sign) or inguinal regions
  • Optic glioma
  • Two or more Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas)
  • A distinctive osseous lesion such as sphenoid dysplasia, or thinning of the long bone cortex with or without pseudarthrosis.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome TP53 17 Early onset of diverse amount of cancers such as - - -

Criteria

  • Sarcoma at a young age (below 45)
  • A first-degree relative diagnosed with any cancer at a young age (below 45)
  • A first or second degree relative with any cancer diagnosed before age 60.
Gardner's syndrome APC  5q21
  • Multiple polyps in the colon 
  • Osteomas of the skull
  • Thyroid cancer,
  • Epidermoid cysts,
  • Fibromas
  • Desmoid tumors
- - -
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Colonoscopy
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 RET - + - -

Criteria Two or more specific endocrine tumors

Cowden syndrome PTEN -  Hamartomas - - -
  • PTEN mutation probability risk calculator
Acromegaly/gigantism - - - + -
Pituitary adenoma - - - + -
Hyperparathyroidism - - - + - -
  • An elevated concentration of serum calcium with elevated parathyroid hormone level is diagnostic of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most consistent laboratory findings associated with the diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism include elevated serum parathyroid hormone level and low to normal serum calcium.
  • An elevated concentration of serum calcium with elevated parathyroid hormone level in post renal transplant patients is diagnostic of tertiary hyperparathyoidism.
Pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma

VHL RET NF1   SDHB  SDHD

- Characterized by - - -
  • Increased catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection.
Adrenocortical carcinoma
  • p53
  • Retinoblastoma h19
  • Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)
  • p57kip2
17p, 13q  - - -
  • Increased serum glucose
  • Increased urine cortisol
  • Serum androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone
  • Low serum potassium
  • Low plasma renin activity
  • High serum aldosterone.
  • Excess serum estrogen.
Adapted from Toledo SP, Lourenço DM, Toledo RA. A differential diagnosis of inherited endocrine tumors and their tumor counterparts, journal=Clinics (Sao Paulo), volume= 68, issue= 7, 07/24/2013[19]

References

  1. Mirrakhimov AE (2015). "Hypercalcemia of Malignancy: An Update on Pathogenesis and Management". N Am J Med Sci. 7 (11): 483–93. doi:10.4103/1947-2714.170600. PMC 4683803. PMID 26713296.
  2. Stewart AF (2005). "Clinical practice. Hypercalcemia associated with cancer". N Engl J Med. 352 (4): 373–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp042806. PMID 15673803.
  3. Ratcliffe WA, Hutchesson AC, Bundred NJ, Ratcliffe JG (1992). "Role of assays for parathyroid-hormone-related protein in investigation of hypercalcaemia". Lancet. 339 (8786): 164–7. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(92)90220-W. PMID 1346019.
  4. Ikeda K, Ohno H, Hane M, Yokoi H, Okada M, Honma T, Yamada A, Tatsumi Y, Tanaka T, Saitoh T (1994). "Development of a sensitive two-site immunoradiometric assay for parathyroid hormone-related peptide: evidence for elevated levels in plasma from patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79 (5): 1322–7. doi:10.1210/jcem.79.5.7962324. PMID 7962324.
  5. Horwitz MJ, Tedesco MB, Sereika SM, Hollis BW, Garcia-Ocaña A, Stewart AF (2003). "Direct comparison of sustained infusion of human parathyroid hormone-related protein-(1-36) [hPTHrP-(1-36)] versus hPTH-(1-34) on serum calcium, plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and fractional calcium excretion in healthy human volunteers". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88 (4): 1603–9. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-020773. PMID 12679445.
  6. Stewart AF, Vignery A, Silverglate A, Ravin ND, LiVolsi V, Broadus AE; et al. (1982). "Quantitative bone histomorphometry in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy: uncoupling of bone cell activity". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 55 (2): 219–27. doi:10.1210/jcem-55-2-219. PMID 7085851.
  7. Roodman GD (2004). "Mechanisms of bone metastasis". N Engl J Med. 350 (16): 1655–64. doi:10.1056/NEJMra030831. PMID 15084698.
  8. Guise TA, Yin JJ, Taylor SD, Kumagai Y, Dallas M, Boyce BF; et al. (1996). "Evidence for a causal role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer-mediated osteolysis". J Clin Invest. 98 (7): 1544–9. doi:10.1172/JCI118947. PMC 507586. PMID 8833902.
  9. Seymour JF, Gagel RF, Hagemeister FB, Dimopoulos MA, Cabanillas F (1994). "Calcitriol production in hypercalcemic and normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma". Ann Intern Med. 121 (9): 633–40. PMID 7944070.
  10. VanHouten JN, Yu N, Rimm D, Dotto J, Arnold A, Wysolmerski JJ, Udelsman R (2006). "Hypercalcemia of malignancy due to ectopic transactivation of the parathyroid hormone gene". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91 (2): 580–3. doi:10.1210/jc.2005-2095. PMID 16263810.
  11. Mallette LE, Khouri K, Zengotita H, Hollis BW, Malini S (1989). "Lithium treatment increases intact and midregion parathyroid hormone and parathyroid volume". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 68 (3): 654–60. doi:10.1210/jcem-68-3-654. PMID 2918061.
  12. Griebeler ML, Kearns AE, Ryu E, Thapa P, Hathcock MA, Melton LJ; et al. (2016). "Thiazide-Associated Hypercalcemia: Incidence and Association With Primary Hyperparathyroidism Over Two Decades". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 101 (3): 1166–73. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-3964. PMC 4803175. PMID 26751196.
  13. Hoeck HC, Laurberg G, Laurberg P (1994). "Hypercalcaemic crisis after excessive topical use of a vitamin D derivative". J. Intern. Med. 235 (3): 281–2. PMID 8120527.
  14. Jacobus CH, Holick MF, Shao Q, Chen TC, Holm IA, Kolodny JM, Fuleihan GE, Seely EW (1992). "Hypervitaminosis D associated with drinking milk". N. Engl. J. Med. 326 (18): 1173–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199204303261801. PMID 1313547.
  15. Sharma OP (1996). "Vitamin D, calcium, and sarcoidosis". Chest. 109 (2): 535–9. PMID 8620732.
  16. Jacobus CH, Holick MF, Shao Q, Chen TC, Holm IA, Kolodny JM, Fuleihan GE, Seely EW (1992). "Hypervitaminosis D associated with drinking milk". N. Engl. J. Med. 326 (18): 1173–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199204303261801. PMID 1313547.
  17. Hoeck HC, Laurberg G, Laurberg P (1994). "Hypercalcaemic crisis after excessive topical use of a vitamin D derivative". J. Intern. Med. 235 (3): 281–2. PMID 8120527.
  18. Dusso AS, Kamimura S, Gallieni M, Zhong M, Negrea L, Shapiro S, Slatopolsky E (1997). "gamma-Interferon-induced resistance to 1,25-(OH)2 D3 in human monocytes and macrophages: a mechanism for the hypercalcemia of various granulomatoses". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82 (7): 2222–32. doi:10.1210/jcem.82.7.4074. PMID 9215298.
  19. Toledo SP, Lourenço DM, Toledo RA (2013). "A differential diagnosis of inherited endocrine tumors and their tumor counterparts". Clinics (Sao Paulo). 68 (7): 1039–56. doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(07)24. PMC 3715026. PMID 23917672.


Linked-in.jpg