Taste bud

Jump to: navigation, search

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Overview

Taste bud
Gray1018.png
Semidiagrammatic view of a portion of the mucous membrane of the tongue. Two fungiform papillæ are shown. On some of the filiform papillæ the epithelial prolongations stand erect, in one they are spread out, and in three they are folded in.
Gray1014.png
The mouth cavity. The cheeks have been slit transversely and the tongue pulled forward.
Gray's subject #222 991
MeSH Taste+Buds

WikiDoc Resources for Taste bud

Articles

Most recent articles on Taste bud

Most cited articles on Taste bud

Review articles on Taste bud

Articles on Taste bud in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Taste bud

Images of Taste bud

Photos of Taste bud

Podcasts & MP3s on Taste bud

Videos on Taste bud

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Taste bud

Bandolier on Taste bud

TRIP on Taste bud

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Taste bud at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Taste bud

Clinical Trials on Taste bud at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Taste bud

NICE Guidance on Taste bud

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Taste bud

CDC on Taste bud

Books

Books on Taste bud

News

Taste bud in the news

Be alerted to news on Taste bud

News trends on Taste bud

Commentary

Blogs on Taste bud

Definitions

Definitions of Taste bud

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Taste bud

Discussion groups on Taste bud

Patient Handouts on Taste bud

Directions to Hospitals Treating Taste bud

Risk calculators and risk factors for Taste bud

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Taste bud

Causes & Risk Factors for Taste bud

Diagnostic studies for Taste bud

Treatment of Taste bud

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Taste bud

International

Taste bud en Espanol

Taste bud en Francais

Business

Taste bud in the Marketplace

Patents on Taste bud

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Taste bud

Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten.

The human tongue has about 10,000 taste buds.

Types of papillae

The majority of taste buds on the tongue sit on raised protrusions of the tongue surface called papillae. There are four types of papillae present in the human tongue:

  • Fungiform papillae - as the name suggests, these are slightly mushroom shaped if looked at in section. These are present mostly at the apex (tip) of the tongue, as well as at the sides. Innervated by facial nerve.
  • Filiform papillae - these are thin, long papillae "V"-shaped cones that don't contain taste buds but are the most numerous. These papillae are mechanical and not involved in gustation. Characterized increased keratinization.
  • Foliate papillae - these are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue found on lateral margins. Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae).
  • Circumvallate papillae - there are only about 3-14 of these papillae on most people, and they are present at the back of the oral part of the tongue. They are arranged in a circular-shaped row just in front of the sulcus terminalis of the tongue. They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands. Innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.

It is known that there are five taste sensations:

Localization of taste and the human "tongue map"

Contrary to popular understanding that different tastes map to different areas of the tongue, taste qualities are found in all areas of the tongue.[1][2][3]

The original "tongue map" was based on a mistranslation by Harvard psychologist Edwin G. Boring of a German paper that was written in 1901.[4] Sensitivity to all tastes occurs across the whole tongue and indeed to other regions of the mouth where there are taste buds (epiglottis, soft palate).[5]

Structure of taste buds

Each taste bud is flask-like in shape, its broad base resting on the corium, and its neck opening by an orifice, the gustatory pore, between the cells of the epithelium.

The bud is formed by two kinds of cells: supporting cells and gustatory cells.

  • The supporting (sustentacular) cells are mostly arranged like the staves of a cask, and form an outer envelope for the bud. Some, however, are found in the interior of the bud between the gustatory cells.
  • The gustatory (taste) cells, a chemoreceptor, occupy the central portion of the bud; they are spindle-shaped, and each possesses a large spherical nucleus near the middle of the cell.

The peripheral end of the cell terminates at the gustatory pore in a fine hair-like filament, the gustatory hair.

The central process passes toward the deep extremity of the bud, and there ends in single or bifurcated varicosities.

The nerve fibrils after losing their medullary sheaths enter the taste bud, and end in fine extremities between the gustatory cells; other nerve fibrils ramify between the supporting cells and terminate in fine extremities; these, however, are believed to be nerves of ordinary sensation and not gustatory.

See also

Additional images

References

  1. Huang A. L., et al. ""The cells and logic for mammalian sour taste detection"". , Nature, 442. 934 - 938 (2006).
  2. Scenta. "How sour taste buds grow". Retrieved August 28. 
  3. Roberts, David. 2002. Signals and Perception. Palgrave MacMillan.
  4. Hänig, D.P., 1901. Zur Psychophysik des Geschmackssinnes. Philosophische Studien, 17: 576-623.
  5. Collings, V.B., 1974. Human Taste Response as a Function of Locus of Stimulation on the Tongue and Soft Palate. Perception & Psychophysics, 16: 169-174.

External links


cs:Chuťový pohárek da:Smagsløg de:Geschmacksknospe it:Papilla he:פקעיות טעם nl:Smaakpapil no:Smaksløk simple:Tastebud sv:Smaklök



Linked-in.jpg