The axolemma is the membrane of a neuron's axon. It is responsible for maintaining the cell's membrane potential, and it contains channels through which ions can flow. This changes the voltage inside the axon and can depolarize or hyperpolarize the cell. Adequate depolarization will lead to an action potential, which will travel down the axon in a self-propagating manner, as more ion channels open due to stimulation by the influx of positive ions.
If the axolemma is damaged, it becomes unable to perform its vital role of maintaining the concentration gradient of ions on the outside of the cell. When these ions rush down their gradient into the cell, they can cause a number of different cellular processes that lead to cellular damage and sometimes death.
|Histology: nervous tissue|
|Neurons (gray matter)||soma - axon (axon hillock, axoplasm, axolemma, neurofibril/neurofilament)
dendrite (Nissl body, dendritic spine, apical dendrite, basal dendrite)
types: bipolar - pseudounipolar - multipolar - pyramidal - Purkinje - granule
|Afferent nerve/Sensory nerve/Sensory neuron||GSA - GVA - SSA - SVA - fibers (Ia, Ib or Golgi, II or Aβ, III or Aδ or fast pain, IV or C or slow pain)|
|Efferent nerve/Motor nerve/Motor neuron||GSE - GVE - SVE - Upper motor neuron - Lower motor neuron (α motorneuron, γ motorneuron)|
|Synapses||neuropil - synaptic vesicle - neuromuscular junction - electrical synapse - Interneuron (Renshaw)|
|Sensory receptors||Meissner's corpuscle - Merkel nerve ending - Pacinian corpuscle - Ruffini ending - Muscle spindle
Free nerve ending
Olfactory receptor neuron - Photoreceptor cell - Hair cell - Taste bud
|Glial cells||Astrocyte (Radial glia) - Oligodendrocyte - Ependymal cells (Tanycytes) - Microglia|
|Myelination (white matter)||CNS: Oligodendrocyte|
PNS: Schwann cell - Neurolemma - Nodes of Ranvier/Internode - Schmidt-Lanterman incisures
|Related connective tissues||epineurium - perineurium - endoneurium - nerve fascicle - meninges|