Activin type 2 receptors
The Activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. These include: Activin (or Inhibin), Bone morphogenetic proteins and Nodal. They are involved in a host of physiological processes including, growth, cell differentiation, homeostasis, osteogenesis, apoptosis and many other functions. There are two Activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B.
Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate, they all operate through essentially the same pathway: A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) which it phosphorylates. The RSMAD then translocates to the nucleus where it functions as a transcription factor.
Several ligands that signal through the Activin type II receptors regulate muscle growth. Myostatin, a TGF-beta superfamily member, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. Myostatin binds to ACVR2B and to a lesser extent ACVR2A. In mice that were ACVR2A -/- (null) mutants there was an increase in all four muscle groups studied (pectoralis, triceps, quadriceps, and gastrocnemious/plantaris muscles). Two of these muscle groups (pectoralis and triceps)were increased in ACVR2B -/- (null) mutants.
Activin plays a significant role in reproduction. ACVR2 receptors are present in the testis during testicular development. ACR2A and ACVR2B was found to be localized primarily in the gonocytes as well as in sertoli cells. These cells are responsive to both autocrine and paracrine Activin B signaling, which controls their proliferation. Cells of the epididymis also have ACVR2A receptors present. ACVR2B receptors were found to be localized in the rete testis.
In the lab, it has been shown that truncated mutations in the ACVR2 gene causes a significant reduction in activin mediated cell signaling. In 58.1% of microsatellite unstable (MSI-H) colorectal cancers the ACVR2A gene has been found mutated. It also plays a role in non - MSI-H colorectal cancers.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 (Dec 2005) "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 102 (50): 18117-22. Entrez PubMed 16330774.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 (Jun 2002) "Expression and localization of inhibin alpha, inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis" (pdf). Reproduction. 123 (6). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
- ↑ Rossi MR, Ionov Y, Bakin AV, Cowell JK (2005). "Truncating mutations in the ACVR2 gene attenuates activin signaling in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 163 (2): 123–9. doi:10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2005.05.007. PMID 16337854.
- ↑ Olaru A, Mori Y, Yin J, et al (2003). "Loss of heterozygosity and mutational analyses of the ACTRII gene locus in human colorectal tumors". Lab. Invest. 83 (12): 1867–71. PMID 14691305.
- ↑ New Myostatin Blocker Makes Mouse Muscles 60 Percent Larger, MDA Research News, January 6, 2006
Cell signaling: TGF beta signaling pathway
|TGF beta superfamily of ligands||TGF beta family (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3)|
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP5, BMP6, BMP7, BMP8a, BMP8b, BMP10 , BMP15)
Growth differentiation factors (GDF1, GDF2, GDF3, GDF5, GDF6, GDF7, Myostatin/GDF8, GDF9, GDF10, GDF11, GDF15)
Other (Activin A and B/Inhibin A and B, Anti-müllerian hormone, Nodal)
|TGF beta receptors||TGFBR1: Activin type 1 receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C) - ACVRL1 - BMPR1 (BMPR1A - BMPR1B) |
TGFBR2: Activin type 2 receptors (ACVR2A, ACVR2B) - AMHR2 - BMPR2
|Transducers/SMAD||R-SMAD (SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD5, SMAD9) - I-SMAD (SMAD6, SMAD7) - SMAD4|
|Ligand Inhibitors||Cerberus - Chordin - DAN - Decorin - Follistatin - Gremlin - Lefty - LTBP1 - Noggin - THBS1|
|Coreceptors||BAMBI - Cripto|
There is no pharmaceutical or device industry support for this site and we need your viewer supported Donations | Editorial Board | Governance | Licensing | Disclaimers | Avoid Plagiarism | Policies