Stomach cancer risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Omer Kamal, M.D.[2], Parminder Dhingra, M.D. [3], Mohammed Abdelwahed M.D[4]

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Risk factors vary according to the type of gastric cancer. Common risk factors for intestinal-type of stomach cancer are chronic superficial gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, pernicious anemia, a high salt diet, chronic inflammation results in epithelial cell damage. Risk factors for diffuse-type gastric cancer are salt and salt-preserved foods, nitroso compounds, lack of fruits and fibers in diet, obesity, smoking, Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal antinflammatory, Epstien-Barr virus, gastric surgery, irradiation, and familial predisposition.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for intestinal type gastric cancer:

Atrophic gastritis

Intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia

Risk factors for diffuse-type gastric cancer:

Salt and salt-preserved foods

Nitroso compounds

Fruits and fibers



Helicobacter pylori

Nonsteroidal antinflammatory (NSAID):

Epstein Barr virus (EBV)

Gastric surgery


Blood group

Familial predisposition

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC)

Gastric adenocarcinoma proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS)

Familial intestinal gastric cancer (FIGC)

Other hereditary cancer syndromes:


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