Stomach cancer epidemiology and demographics
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Omer Kamal, M.D., Rim Halaby, M.D. , Mohammed Abdelwahed M.D
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Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In the United States, stomach cancer represents roughly 1.3% of all new cancer cases yearly. In 2011, the age-adjusted prevalence of stomach cancer was estimated to be 23.5 cases per 100,000 individuals in the United States. Stomach cancer is two times more common in men than in women, and the incidence increases with age. Incidence of gastric cancer under 65 years is 2.9 per 100,000.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- Stomach cancer represents roughly 1300 cases of 100,000 all new cancer cases yearly in the United States.
- In the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of stomach cancer is 23.5 per 100,000 in 2011.
- The worldwide incidence of gastric cancer has declined rapidly over the recent few decades.
- The delay-adjusted incidence of stomach cancer in 2011 was estimated to be 7.27 per 100,000 persons in the United States.
- In 2011, the age-adjusted incidence of stomach cancer was 7.17 per 100,000 persons in the United States.
- Part of the decline may be due to the recognition of certain risk factors such as H. pylori and other dietary and environmental risks.
- The decline first took place in countries with low gastric cancer incidence such as the United States while the decline in countries with high incidence like Japan was slower.
- The absolute number of new cases per year is increasing, mainly due to aging in the world population.
- While the overall age-adjusted incidence of stomach cancer in the United States between 2007 and 2011 was 7.5 per 100,000, the age-adjusted incidence of stomach cancer by age category was:
- Under 65 years: 2.9 per 100,000
- 65 and over: 38.8 per 100,000
- In the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of stomach cancer by gender in 2011 was:
- In males: 30.3 per 100,000
- In females: 18.2 per 100,000
- Gastric cancer is more common in men than in women, in both developed and developing countries.
- Intestinal gastric cancer is more common in males and older age groups.
- The diffuse or infiltrative type, is equally frequent in both sexes, is more common in younger age groups, and has a worse prognosis than the intestinal type.
- In the United States, the delay-adjusted incidence of stomach cancer by gender in 2011 was:
- In males: 9.95 per 100,000 persons
- In females: 5.14 per 100,000 persons
- In the United States, the age-adjusted incidence of stomach cancer by gender on 2011 was:
- In males: 9.82 per 100,000 persons
- In females: 5.06 per 100,000 persons.
- Shown below is a table depicting the age-adjusted prevalence of stomach cancer by race in 2011 in the United States.
|All Races||White||Black||Asian/Pacific Islander||Hispanic|
|Age-adjusted prevalence||23.5 per 100,000||18.9 per 100,000||28.8 per 100,000||47.5 per 100,000|
- The incidence of gastric cancer is particularly high in Korea, Japan, Mongolia, central Asia, Eastern Europe, and parts of Central and South America.
- Stomach cancer is the most common type of cancer in Korea. It is suspected that several risk factors are involved including diet, gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori infection.
- A Korean diet, high in salted, stewed and broiled foods, is thought to be a contributing factor.
- Ten percent of cases show a genetic component.
- In Japan and other countries bracken consumption and spores are correlated to stomach cancer incidence.
- Rates are highest in Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe, and South America, while the lowest rates are in North America and parts of Africa.
- Over 70 percent of gastric cancers occur in developing countries.
- Studies of Japanese migrants to the Unites States have confirmed that early exposure to environmental rather than genetic factors have a greater influence on mortality and incidence rates.
- In the past decades, gastric cancer survival rates have increased in most areas of the world.
- Screening for early detection in high-risk areas has led to a decrease in mortality. In Japan, mortality rates for gastric cancer in men have dereased to half due to mass screening programs.
- Gastric cardia tumors have a much poorer prognosis compared to the pyloric antrum tumors.
- The five-year relative survival rates in USA is less than 20% due to late discovery and vary from 10% to 20% in European countries.
Percent Distribution of stomach cancer by Histology
- Epidermoid carcinoma: 0.9%
- Squamous cell carcinoma: 0.8%
- Adenocarcinoma: 83.7%
- Adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified: 48.3%
- Adenocarcinoma, intestinal type: 8.4%
- Adenocarcinoma, diffuse type: 3.5%
- Linitis plastica: 0.6%
- Mucinous adenocarcinoma: 1.4%
- Mucin producing adenocarcinoma: 0.5%
- Signet ring adenocarcinoma: 16.8%
- Other adenocarcinoma: 4.1%
- Other specific carcinoma: 6.3%
- Unspecified carcinoma: 2.5%
- Sarcoma and other soft tissue tumors: 0.3%
- Other specific type: 6%
- Unspecified: 0.5%
- ↑ SEER stat fact sheets: stomach cancer
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z,Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014.
- ↑ Hirayama T (1975). "Epidemiology of cancer of the stomach with special reference to its recent decrease in Japan". Cancer Res. 35 (11 Pt. 2): 3460–3. PMID 1192411.
- ↑ Fitzsimmons D, Osmond C, George S, Johnson CD (2007). "Trends in stomach and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in England and Wales, 1951-2000". Br J Surg. 94 (9): 1162–71. doi:10.1002/bjs.5751. PMID 17520709.
- ↑ Correa P (2011). "Gastric cancer: two epidemics?". Dig Dis Sci. 56 (5): 1585–6, author reply 1586. doi:10.1007/s10620-011-1642-x. PMID 21394461.
- ↑ Stomach cancer incidence statistics. Cancer research UK
- ↑ Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Arndt V (2009). "Epidemiology of stomach cancer". Methods Mol Biol. 472: 467–77. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_23. PMID 19107449.
- ↑ Shin A, Kim J, Park S (2011). "Gastric cancer epidemiology in Korea". J Gastric Cancer. 11 (3): 135–40. doi:10.5230/jgc.2011.11.3.135. PMC 3204471. PMID 22076217.
- ↑ AHyuk-Joon Lee, Han-Kwang Yang, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Gastric cancer in Korea Gastric Cancer, Volume 5, Number 3 / September, 2002. DOI:10.1007/s101200200031]
- ↑ Alonso-Amelot ME, Avendano M., Human Carcinogenesis and Bracken Fern: A Review of the Evidence, Curr Med Chem. 2002 Mar;9(6):675-86
- ↑ Jung KW, Park S, Kong HJ, Won YJ, Lee JY, Park EC; et al. (2011). "Cancer statistics in Korea: incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence in 2008". Cancer Res Treat. 43 (1): 1–11. doi:10.4143/crt.2011.43.1.1. PMC 3072529. PMID 21509157.
- ↑ Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D (2011). "Global cancer statistics". CA Cancer J Clin. 61 (2): 69–90. doi:10.3322/caac.20107. PMID 21296855.
- ↑ Haenszel W, Kurihara M (1968). "Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States". J Natl Cancer Inst. 40 (1): 43–68. PMID 5635018.
- ↑ Bertuccio P, Chatenoud L, Levi F, Praud D, Ferlay J, Negri E; et al. (2009). "Recent patterns in gastric cancer: a global overview". Int J Cancer. 125 (3): 666–73. doi:10.1002/ijc.24290. PMID 19382179.
- ↑ Kalish RJ, Clancy PE, Orringer MB, Appelman HD (1984). "Clinical, epidemiologic, and morphologic comparison between adenocarcinomas arising in Barrett's esophageal mucosa and in the gastric cardia". Gastroenterology. 86 (3): 461–7. PMID 6693012.