Stomach cancer primary prevention
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Parminder Dhingra, M.D.  Mohammed Abdelwahed M.D
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Effective measures for the primary prevention of stomach cancer include smoking cessation, eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and having a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables. In areas of low gastric cancer, incidence and screening for gastric cancer with upper endoscopy should be reserved for specific high-risk subgroups. Individuals at increased risk for gastric cancer include gastric adenomas, pernicious anemia, gastric intestinal metaplasia, familial adenomatous polyposis, Lynch syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome.
Lifestyle modifications include following:
- Dietary modification is an important approach to control gastric cancer. There is a link between physical inactivity and obesity to many types of cancer.
- Diet with low consumption of red meat, high in fruits and vegetables may have a protective effect against many cancers.
- The World Health Assembly adopted the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health, in May 2004 to reduce deaths and diseases.
- The incidence of metachronous gastric cancer following the endoscopic resection of a gastric neoplasm is known to be reduced by the eradication of H. pylori infection. 
Prevention Through Screening
- In countries with a high incidence of gastric cancer such as east Asia countries, universal screening is recommended
- Japan has a high incidence of gastric cancer; therefore annual screening via double contrast barium radiography and photofluorography every year or upper endoscopy every two to three years 
- Screening interval is recommended to be every two years but may be extended to a three-year interval without significant difference in effect
Prevention of Hereditary Cancer
- Asymptomatic patients with a family history of HDGC and CDH1 mutations have a high probability of developing signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended for patients with family history of HDGC and CDH1 mutations.
- For patients with a CDH1 mutation but who are not from an HDGC family, individualized evaluation at an experienced center before prophylactic total gastrectomy is recomended.
- Prophylactic gastrectomy is often advised between age 20 and 30.
- Some suggest timing total gastrectomy in CDH1 mutation carriers at an age that is five years younger than the youngest family member who developed gastric cancer.
- Older patients are less likely to benefit from a prophylactic gastrectomy than younger patients because of a shorter life-expectancy and a higher perioperative risk.
- Patients who are older than 75 years should not undergo such a procedure, as their mortality from the procedure outweighs their mortality from gastric cancer.
- Decisions should be individualized based upon their comorbidities and the age of gastric cancer onset in their respective kindred.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Park JY, von Karsa L, Herrero R (November 2014). "Prevention strategies for gastric cancer: a global perspective". Clin Endosc. 47 (6): 478–89. doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.6.478. PMC 4260094. PMID 25505712.
- ↑ García Martín R, Matía Cubillo Á (May 2016). "[INFLUENCE OF DIET IN PRIMARY PREVENTION OF GASTRIC CANCER, IN PATIENTS INFECTED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI]". Rev Enferm (in Spanish; Castilian). 39 (5): 33–8. PMID 27405145.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Ohata H, Oka M, Yanaoka K, Shimizu Y, Mukoubayashi C, Mugitani K, Iwane M, Nakamura H, Tamai H, Arii K, Nakata H, Yoshimura N, Takeshita T, Miki K, Mohara O, Ichinose M (October 2005). "Gastric cancer screening of a high-risk population in Japan using serum pepsinogen and barium digital radiography". Cancer Sci. 96 (10): 713–20. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2005.00098.x. PMID 16232204.
- ↑ Keller G, Vogelsang H, Becker I, Hutter J, Ott K, Candidus S; et al. (1999). "Diffuse type gastric and lobular breast carcinoma in a familial gastric cancer patient with an E-cadherin germline mutation". Am J Pathol. 155 (2): 337–42. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65129-2. PMC 1866861. PMID 10433926.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Abreu E (1997). "[Primary prevention and detection of gastric cancer]". Cad Saude Publica (in Portuguese). 13 Suppl 1: 105–108. PMID 10886930. Vancouver style error: initials (help)
- ↑ Pharoah PD, Guilford P, Caldas C, International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium (2001). "Incidence of gastric cancer and breast cancer in CDH1 (E-cadherin) mutation carriers from hereditary diffuse gastric cancer families". Gastroenterology. 121 (6): 1348–53. PMID 11729114.
- ↑ Norton JA, Ham CM, Van Dam J, Jeffrey RB, Longacre TA, Huntsman DG; et al. (2007). "CDH1 truncating mutations in the E-cadherin gene: an indication for total gastrectomy to treat hereditary diffuse gastric cancer". Ann Surg. 245 (6): 873–9. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000254370.29893.e4. PMC 1876967. PMID 17522512.
- ↑ Chun YS, Lindor NM, Smyrk TC, Petersen BT, Burgart LJ, Guilford PJ; et al. (2001). "Germline E-cadherin gene mutations: is prophylactic total gastrectomy indicated?". Cancer. 92 (1): 181–7. PMID 11443625.