Serum response factor
Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Henry A. Hoff
Gene ID: 6722 SRF serum response factor, "This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene."
- NP_003122.1 serum response factor isoform 1: "This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1)." cd00266 (Location:142 → 223): "MADS_SRF_like; SRF-like/Type I subfamily of MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF (serum response factor) box family of eukaryotic transcriptional regulators. Binds DNA and exists as hetero- and homo-dimers. Differs from the MEF-like/Type II subgroup mainly in position of the alpha 2 helix responsible for the dimerization interface. Important in homeotic regulation in plants and in immediate-early development in animals. Also found in fungi."
- NP_001278930.1 serum response factor isoform 2: "This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1."
Serum response factor is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs).
SRF is important during the development of the embryo, as it has been linked to the formation of mesoderm. In the fully developed mammal, SRF is crucial for the growth of skeletal muscle. Interaction of SRF with other proteins, such as steroid hormone receptors, may contribute to regulation of muscle growth by steroids. Interaction of SRF with other proteins such as myocardin or Elk-1 may enhance or suppress expression of genes important for growth of vascular smooth muscle.
"A common feature of many muscle genes is their dependence on a cis-acting sequence known as a CArG box (CC(A/T)6GG), which serves as the binding site for serum response factor (SRF) (reviewed in Shore and Sharrocks, 1995)."
Serum response factor has been shown to interact with:
- Norman C, Runswick M, Pollock R, Treisman R (December 1988). "Isolation and properties of cDNA clones encoding SRF, a transcription factor that binds to the c-fos serum response element". Cell. 55 (6): 989–1003. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90244-9. PMID 3203386.
- RefSeq (May 2014). "SRF serum response factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- cd00266 (17 January 2013). "Conserved Protein Domain Family MADS_SRF_like". 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- Shore P, Sharrocks AD (April 1995). "The MADS-box family of transcription factors". Eur. J. Biochem. 229 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.0001l.x. PMID 7744019.
- Dalton S, Marais R, Wynne J, Treisman R (June 1993). "Isolation and characterization of SRF accessory proteins". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 340 (1293): 325–32. doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0074. PMID 8103935.
- "SRF serum response factor". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health.
- Sepulveda JL, Vlahopoulos S, Iyer D, Belaguli N, Schwartz RJ (July 2002). "Combinatorial expression of GATA4, Nkx2-5, and serum response factor directs early cardiac gene activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25775–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203122200. PMID 11983708.
- Barron MR, Belaguli NS, Zhang SX, Trinh M, Iyer D, Merlo X, Lough JW, Parmacek MS, Bruneau BG, Schwartz RJ (March 2005). "Serum response factor, an enriched cardiac mesoderm obligatory factor, is a downstream gene target for Tbx genes". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (12): 11816–28. doi:10.1074/jbc.M412408200. PMID 15591049.
- Li S, Czubryt MP, McAnally J, Bassel-Duby R, Richardson JA, Wiebel FF, Nordheim A, Olson EN (January 2005). "Requirement for serum response factor for skeletal muscle growth and maturation revealed by tissue-specific gene deletion in mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (4): 1082–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0409103102. PMC 545866. PMID 15647354.
- Vlahopoulos S, Zimmer WE, Jenster G, Belaguli NS, Balk SP, Brinkmann AO, Lanz RB, Zoumpourlis VC, Schwartz RJ (March 2005). "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (9): 7786–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M413992200. PMID 15623502.
- Da-Zhi Wang, Priscilla S. Chang, Zhigao Wang, Lillian Sutherland, James A. Richardson, Eric Small, Paul A. Krieg and Eric N. Olson (29 June 2001). "Activation of cardiac gene expression by myocardin, a transcriptional cofactor for serum response factor". Cell. 105 (7): 851–862. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00404-4. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
- Jung DJ, Sung HS, Goo YW, Lee HM, Park OK, Jung SY, Lim J, Kim HJ, Lee SK, Kim TS, Lee JW, Lee YC (July 2002). "Novel transcription coactivator complex containing activating signal cointegrator 1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (14): 5203–11. doi:10.1128/mcb.22.14.5203-5211.2002. PMC 139772. PMID 12077347.
- Zhu C, Johansen FE, Prywes R (September 1997). "Interaction of ATF6 and serum response factor". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (9): 4957–66. PMC 232347. PMID 9271374.
- Hanlon M, Sealy L (May 1999). "Ras regulates the association of serum response factor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (20): 14224–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.20.14224. PMID 10318842.
- Sealy L, Malone D, Pawlak M (March 1997). "Regulation of the cfos serum response element by C/EBPbeta". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (3): 1744–55. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.3.1744. PMC 231899. PMID 9032301.
- Matsuzaki K, Minami T, Tojo M, Honda Y, Saitoh N, Nagahiro S, Saya H, Nakao M (March 2003). "PML-nuclear bodies are involved in cellular serum response". Genes Cells. 8 (3): 275–86. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2003.00632.x. PMID 12622724.
- Hassler M, Richmond TJ (June 2001). "The B-box dominates SAP-1-SRF interactions in the structure of the ternary complex". EMBO J. 20 (12): 3018–28. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.12.3018. PMC 150215. PMID 11406578.
- Belaguli NS, Sepulveda JL, Nigam V, Charron F, Nemer M, Schwartz RJ (October 2000). "Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (20): 7550–8. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.20.7550-7558.2000. PMC 86307. PMID 11003651.
- Morin S, Paradis P, Aries A, Nemer M (February 2001). "Serum response factor-GATA ternary complex required for nuclear signaling by a G-protein-coupled receptor". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (4): 1036–44. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.4.1036-1044.2001. PMC 99558. PMID 11158291.
- Joliot V, Demma M, Prywes R (February 1995). "Interaction with RAP74 subunit of TFIIF is required for transcriptional activation by serum response factor". Nature. 373 (6515): 632–5. doi:10.1038/373632a0. PMID 7854423.
- Zhu H, Joliot V, Prywes R (February 1994). "Role of transcription factor TFIIF in serum response factor-activated transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (5): 3489–97. PMID 8106390.
- Grueneberg DA, Henry RW, Brauer A, Novina CD, Cheriyath V, Roy AL, Gilman M (October 1997). "A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to TFII-I". Genes Dev. 11 (19): 2482–93. doi:10.1101/gad.11.19.2482. PMC 316568. PMID 9334314.
- Kim DW, Cheriyath V, Roy AL, Cochran BH (June 1998). "TFII-I enhances activation of the c-fos promoter through interactions with upstream elements". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (6): 3310–20. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.6.3310. PMC 108912. PMID 9584171.
- Groisman R, Masutani H, Leibovitch MP, Robin P, Soudant I, Trouche D, Harel-Bellan A (March 1996). "Physical interaction between the mitogen-responsive serum response factor and myogenic basic-helix-loop-helix proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5258–64. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9.5258. PMID 8617811.
- Biesiada E, Hamamori Y, Kedes L, Sartorelli V (April 1999). "Myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins and Sp1 interact as components of a multiprotein transcriptional complex required for activity of the human cardiac alpha-actin promoter". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (4): 2577–84. PMC 84050. PMID 10082523.
- Yamada K, Osawa H, Granner DK (October 1999). "Identification of proteins that interact with NF-YA". FEBS Lett. 460 (1): 41–5. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)01311-3. PMID 10571058.
- Lee SK, Kim JH, Lee YC, Cheong J, Lee JW (April 2000). "Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors, as a novel transcriptional corepressor molecule of activating protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (17): 12470–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.17.12470. PMID 10777532.
- Kim HJ, Kim JH, Lee JW (October 1998). "Steroid receptor coactivator-1 interacts with serum response factor and coactivates serum response element-mediated transactivations". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (44): 28564–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.44.28564. PMID 9786846.
- Gupta M, Kogut P, Davis FJ, Belaguli NS, Schwartz RJ, Gupta MP (March 2001). "Physical interaction between the MADS box of serum response factor and the TEA/ATTS DNA-binding domain of transcription enhancer factor-1". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (13): 10413–22. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008625200. PMID 11136726.
- Koegel H, von Tobel L, Schäfer M, Alberti S, Kremmer E, Mauch C, Hohl D, Wang XJ, Beer HD, Bloch W, Nordheim A, Werner S (April 2009). "Loss of serum response factor in keratinocytes results in hyperproliferative skin disease in mice". J. Clin. Invest. 119 (4): 899–910. doi:10.1172/JCI37771. PMC 2662566. PMID 19307725.
Initial content for this page in some instances incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine.