DNA damage-inducible transcript 3

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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DNA damage-inducible transcript 3, also known as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), is a pro-apoptotic transcription factor that is encoded by the DDIT3 gene.[1][2]


DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 has been shown to interact with [proteins]:

Clinical significance

During endoplasmic reticulum stress (such as occurs in beta cells of the pancreas or in macrophages causing atherosclerosis), CHOP can induce activation of Ero1, causing calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm, resulting in apoptosis.[9] CHOP also induces apoptosis during endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34.[10]

Mutations or fusions of CHOP (e.g. with FUS to form FUS-CHOP) can cause Myxoid liposarcoma.[11]


  1. Papathanasiou MA, Kerr NC, Robbins JH, McBride OW, Alamo I Jr, Barrett SF, Hickson ID, Fornace AJ Jr (March 1991). "Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C". Mol Cell Biol. 11 (2): 1009–16. PMC 359769. PMID 1990262.
  2. "Entrez Gene: DDIT3 DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3".
  3. Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor induced by physiological stresses and modulated by gadd153/Chop10". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (3): 1157–68. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.3.1157. PMC 231098. PMID 8622660.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ubeda M, Vallejo M, Habener JF (November 1999). "CHOP enhancement of gene transcription by interactions with Jun/Fos AP-1 complex proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (11): 7589–99. PMC 84780. PMID 10523647.
  5. Hattori T, Ohoka N, Hayashi H, Onozaki K (April 2003). "C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) up-regulates IL-6 transcription by trapping negative regulating NF-IL6 isoform". FEBS Lett. 541 (1–3): 33–9. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00283-7. PMID 12706815.
  6. Fawcett TW, Eastman HB, Martindale JL, Holbrook NJ (June 1996). "Physical and functional association between GADD153 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta during cellular stress". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (24): 14285–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.24.14285. PMID 8662954.
  7. Ubeda M, Habener JF (October 2003). "CHOP transcription factor phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 inhibits transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (42): 40514–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306404200. PMID 12876286.
  8. Cui K, Coutts M, Stahl J, Sytkowski AJ (March 2000). "Novel interaction between the transcription factor CHOP (GADD153) and the ribosomal protein FTE/S3a modulates erythropoiesis". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (11): 7591–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.11.7591. PMID 10713066.
  9. Li G, Mongillo M, Chin KT, Harding H, Ron D, Marks AR, Tabas I (2009). "Role of ERO1-alpha-mediated stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor activity in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis". Journal of Cell Biology. 186 (6): 783–792. doi:10.1083/jcb.200904060. PMC 2753154. PMID 19752026.
  10. Marciniak SJ, Yun CY, Oyadomari S, Novoa I, Zhang Y, Jungreis R, Nagata K, Harding HP, Ron D (2004). "CHOP induces death by promoting protein synthesis and oxidation in the stressed endoplasmic reticulum". Genes & Development. 18 (24): 3066–3077. doi:10.1101/gad.1250704. PMC 535917. PMID 15601821.
  11. Panagopoulos I, Höglund M, Mertens F, et al. (1996). "Fusion of the EWS and CHOP genes in myxoid liposarcoma". Oncogene. 12 (3): 489–94. PMID 8637704.

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.