Raltegravir

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Raltegravir
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Raltegravir is a integrase inhibitor that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of HIV-1 infection in patients 4 weeks of age and older. Common adverse reactions include insomnia, headache, dizziness, nausea and fatigue.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

HIV-1 infection
  • Dosing Information
  • For the treatment of adult patients with HIV-1 infection, the dosage of ISENTRESS is one 400 mg film-coated tablet administered orally, twice daily.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Raltegravir in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Raltegravir in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Condition1
  • Dosing Information
  • If at least 25 kg: One 400 mg film-coated tablet orally, twice daily.
  • If unable to swallow a tablet, consider the chewable tablet, as specified in Table 1.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • If at least 4 weeks of age and weighing at least 3 kg to less than 25 kg: Weight based dosing, as specified in Table 2.
  • For patients weighing between 11 and 20 kg, either the chewable tablet or oral suspension can be used, as specified in Table 2. Patients can remain on the oral suspension as long as their weight is below 20 kg. Refer to Table 2 for appropriate dosing.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Raltegravir in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Raltegravir in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

None

Warnings

Precautions

  • Severe Skin and Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • Severe, potentially life-threatening, and fatal skin reactions have been reported. These include cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported and were characterized by rash, constitutional findings, and sometimes, organ dysfunction, including hepatic failure. Discontinue ISENTRESS and other suspect agents immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin reactions or hypersensitivity reactions develop (including, but not limited to, severe rash or rash accompanied by fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, facial edema, hepatitis, eosinophilia, angioedema). Clinical status including liver aminotransferases should be monitored and appropriate therapy initiated. Delay in stopping ISENTRESS treatment or other suspect agents after the onset of severe rash may result in a life-threatening reaction.
  • Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
  • Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including ISENTRESS. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune systems respond may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
  • Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment.
  • Phenylketonurics
  • ISENTRESS Chewable Tablets contain phenylalanine, a component of aspartame. Each 25 mg ISENTRESS Chewable Tablet contains approximately 0.05 mg phenylalanine. Each 100 mg ISENTRESS Chewable Tablet contains approximately 0.10 mg phenylalanine. Phenylalanine can be harmful to patients with phenylketonuria.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Treatment-Naïve Adults
  • The following safety assessment of ISENTRESS in treatment-naïve subjects is based on the randomized double-blind active controlled study of treatment-naïve subjects, STARTMRK (Protocol 021) with ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily in combination with a fixed dose of emtricitabine 200 mg (+) tenofovir 300 mg, (N=281) versus efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg at bedtime in combination with emtricitabine (+) tenofovir, (N=282). During double-blind treatment, the total follow-up for subjects receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir was 1104 patient-years and 1036 patient-years for subjects receiving efavirenz 600 mg at bedtime + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir.
  • In Protocol 021, the rate of discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events was 5% in subjects receiving ISENTRESS + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir and 10% in subjects receiving efavirenz + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir.
  • The clinical adverse drug reactions (ADRs) listed below were considered by investigators to be causally related to ISENTRESS + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir or efavirenz + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir. Clinical ADRs of moderate to severe intensity occurring in ≥2% of treatment-naïve subjects treated with ISENTRESS are presented in Table 3.
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  • Laboratory Abnormalities
  • The percentages of adult subjects treated with ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily or efavirenz in Protocol 021 with selected Grades 2 to 4 laboratory abnormalities that represent a worsening Grade from baseline are presented in Table 4.
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  • Lipids, Change from Baseline
  • Changes from baseline in fasting lipids are shown in Table 5.
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  • Treatment-Experienced Adults
  • The safety assessment of ISENTRESS in treatment-experienced subjects is based on the pooled safety data from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, BENCHMRK 1 and BENCHMRK 2 (Protocols 018 and 019) in antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1 infected adult subjects. A total of 462 subjects received the recommended dose of ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily in combination with optimized background therapy (OBT) compared to 237 subjects taking placebo in combination with OBT. The median duration of therapy in these trials was 96 weeks for subjects receiving ISENTRESS and 38 weeks for subjects receiving placebo. The total exposure to ISENTRESS was 708 patient-years versus 244 patient-years on placebo. The rates of discontinuation due to adverse events were 4% in subjects receiving ISENTRESS and 5% in subjects receiving placebo.
  • Clinical ADRs were considered by investigators to be causally related to ISENTRESS + OBT or placebo + OBT. Clinical ADRs of moderate to severe intensity occurring in ≥2% of subjects treated with ISENTRESS and occurring at a higher rate compared to placebo are presented in Table 6.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Laboratory Abnormalities
  • The percentages of adult subjects treated with ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily or placebo in Protocols 018 and 019 with selected Grade 2 to 4 laboratory abnormalities representing a worsening Grade from baseline are presented in Table 7.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Less Common Adverse Reactions Observed in Treatment-Naïve and Treatment-Experienced Studies
  • The following ADRs occurred in <2% of treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced subjects receiving ISENTRESS in a combination regimen. These events have been included because of their seriousness, increased frequency on ISENTRESS compared with efavirenz or placebo, or investigator's assessment of potential causal relationship.
  • General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: asthenia
  • Psychiatric Disorders: depression (particularly in subjects with a pre-existing history of psychiatric illness), including suicidal ideation and behaviors
  • Selected Adverse Events - Adults
  • Cancers were reported in treatment-experienced subjects who initiated ISENTRESS or placebo, both with OBT, and in treatment-naïve subjects who initiated ISENTRESS or efavirenz, both with emtricitabine (+) tenofovir; several were recurrent. The types and rates of specific cancers were those expected in a highly immunodeficient population (many had CD4+ counts below 50 cells/mm3 and most had prior AIDS diagnoses). The risk of developing cancer in these studies was similar in the group receiving ISENTRESS and the group receiving the comparator.
  • Grade 2-4 creatine kinase laboratory abnormalities were observed in subjects treated with ISENTRESS (see Table 6). Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported. Use with caution in patients at increased risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, such as patients receiving concomitant medications known to cause these conditions and patients with a history of rhabdomyolysis, myopathy or increased serum creatine kinase.
  • Rash occurred more commonly in treatment-experienced subjects receiving regimens containing ISENTRESS + darunavir/ritonavir compared to subjects receiving ISENTRESS without darunavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir without ISENTRESS. However, rash that was considered drug related occurred at similar rates for all three groups. These rashes were mild to moderate in severity and did not limit therapy; there were no discontinuations due to rash.
  • Patients with Co-existing Conditions - Adults
  • Patients Co-infected with Hepatitis B and/or Hepatitis C Virus
  • In the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, treatment-experienced subjects (N = 114/699 or 16%) and treatment-naïve subjects (N = 34/563 or 6%) with chronic (but not acute) active hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection were permitted to enroll provided that baseline liver function tests did not exceed 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). In general the safety profile of ISENTRESS in subjects with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection was similar to that in subjects without hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection, although the rates of AST and ALT abnormalities were higher in the subgroup with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection for all treatment groups. At 96 weeks, in treatment-experienced subjects, Grade 2 or higher laboratory abnormalities that represent a worsening Grade from baseline of AST, ALT or total bilirubin occurred in 29%, 34% and 13%, respectively, of co-infected subjects treated with ISENTRESS as compared to 11%, 10% and 9% of all other subjects treated with ISENTRESS. At 240 weeks, in treatment-naïve subjects, Grade 2 or higher laboratory abnormalities that represent a worsening Grade from baseline of AST, ALT or total bilirubin occurred in 22%, 44% and 17%, respectively, of co-infected subjects treated with ISENTRESS as compared to 13%, 13% and 5% of all other subjects treated with ISENTRESS.
  • Pediatrics
  • 2 to 18 Years of Age
  • ISENTRESS has been studied in 126 antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1 infected children and adolescents 2 to 18 years of age, in combination with other antiretroviral agents in IMPAACT P1066. Of the 126 patients, 96 received the recommended dose of ISENTRESS.
  • In these 96 children and adolescents, frequency, type and severity of drug related adverse reactions through Week 24 were comparable to those observed in adults.
  • One patient experienced drug related clinical adverse reactions of Grade 3 psychomotor hyperactivity, abnormal behavior and insomnia; one patient experienced a Grade 2 serious drug related allergic rash.
  • One patient experienced drug related laboratory abnormalities, Grade 4 AST and Grade 3 ALT, which were considered serious.
  • 4 Weeks to less than 2 Years of Age
  • ISENTRESS has also been studied in 26 HIV-1 infected infants and toddlers 4 weeks to less than 2 years of age, in combination with other antiretroviral agents in IMPAACT P1066.
  • In these 26 infants and toddlers, the frequency, type and severity of drug-related adverse reactions through Week 48 were comparable to those observed in adults.
  • One patient experienced a Grade 3 serious drug-related allergic rash that resulted in treatment discontinuation.

Postmarketing Experience

  • The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of ISENTRESS. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
  • Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatic failure (with and without associated hypersensitivity) in patients with underlying liver disease and/or concomitant medications

Drug Interactions

  • Effect of Raltegravir on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Agents
  • Raltegravir does not inhibit (IC50>100 µM) CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 or CYP3A in vitro. Moreover, in vitro, raltegravir did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4. A midazolam drug interaction study confirmed the low propensity of raltegravir to alter the pharmacokinetics of agents metabolized by CYP3A4 in vivo by demonstrating a lack of effect of raltegravir on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate. Similarly, raltegravir is not an inhibitor (IC50>50 µM) of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) tested (UGT1A1, UGT2B7), and raltegravir does not inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Based on these data, ISENTRESS is not expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of these enzymes or P-glycoprotein (e.g., protease inhibitors, NNRTIs, opioid analgesics, statins, azole antifungals, proton pump inhibitors and anti-erectile dysfunction agents).
  • In drug interaction studies, raltegravir did not have a clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of the following: hormonal contraceptives, methadone, lamivudine, tenofovir, etravirine, darunavir/ritonavir, telaprevir, boceprevir.
  • Effect of Other Agents on the Pharmacokinetics of Raltegravir
  • Raltegravir is not a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via a UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway.
  • Rifampin, a strong inducer of UGT1A1, reduces plasma concentrations of ISENTRESS. Therefore, in adults the dose of ISENTRESS should be increased during coadministration with rifampin. There are no data to guide co-administration of ISENTRESS with rifampin in patients below 18 years of age. The impact of other inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes, such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, on UGT1A1 is unknown.
  • Coadministration of ISENTRESS with drugs that inhibit UGT1A1 may increase plasma levels of raltegravir.
  • Coadministration of ISENTRESS with antacids containing divalent metal cations may reduce raltegravir absorption by chelation, resulting in a decrease of raltegravir plasma levels. Taking an aluminum and magnesium antacid within 2 hours of ISENTRESS administration significantly decreased raltegravir plasma levels. Therefore, coadministration of ISENTRESS with aluminum and/or magnesium-containing antacids is not recommended. Coadministration of ISENTRESS with a calcium carbonate antacid decreased raltegravir plasma levels; however, this interaction is not considered clinically meaningful. Therefore, when ISENTRESS is coadministered with calcium carbonate-containing antacids, no dose adjustment is recommended.
  • Selected drug interactions are presented in Table 8.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • SENTRESS should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In addition, there have been no pharmacokinetic studies conducted in pregnant patients.
  • Developmental toxicity studies were performed in rabbits (at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day) and rats (at oral doses up to 600 mg/kg/day). The reproductive toxicity study in rats was performed with pre-, peri-, and postnatal evaluation. The highest doses in these studies produced systemic exposures in these species approximately 3- to 4-fold the exposure at the recommended human dose. In both rabbits and rats, no treatment-related effects on embryonic/fetal survival or fetal weights were observed. In addition, no treatment-related external, visceral, or skeletal changes were observed in rabbits. However, treatment-related increases over controls in the incidence of supernumerary ribs were seen in rats at 600 mg/kg/day (exposures 3-fold the exposure at the recommended human dose).
  • Placenta transfer of drug was demonstrated in both rats and rabbits. At a maternal dose of 600 mg/kg/day in rats, mean drug concentrations in fetal plasma were approximately 1.5- to 2.5-fold greater than in maternal plasma at 1 hour and 24 hours postdose, respectively. Mean drug concentrations in fetal plasma were approximately 2% of the mean maternal concentration at both 1 and 24 hours postdose at a maternal dose of 1000 mg/kg/day in rabbits.
  • Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
  • To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant patients exposed to ISENTRESS, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-258-4263.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Raltegravir in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Raltegravir during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Breastfeeding is not recommended while taking ISENTRESS. In addition, it is recommended that HIV-1-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1.
  • It is not known whether raltegravir is secreted in human milk. However, raltegravir is secreted in the milk of lactating rats. Mean drug concentrations in milk were approximately 3-fold greater than those in maternal plasma at a maternal dose of 600 mg/kg/day in rats. There were no effects in rat offspring attributable to exposure of ISENTRESS through the milk.

Pediatric Use

  • The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and efficacy of ISENTRESS were evaluated in HIV-1 infected infants, children and adolescents 4 weeks to 18 years of age in an open-label, multicenter clinical trial, IMPAACT P1066. The safety profile was comparable to that observed in adults. The safety and dosing information for ISENTRESS have not been established in infants less than 4 weeks of age.

Geriatic Use

  • Clinical studies of ISENTRESS did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Raltegravir with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Raltegravir with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Raltegravir in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Raltegravir in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Raltegravir in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Raltegravir in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Raltegravir in the drug label.

  • Description

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Raltegravir in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with ISENTRESS. Doses as high as 1600-mg single dose and 800-mg twice-daily multiple doses were studied in healthy volunteers without evidence of toxicity. Occasional doses of up to 1800 mg per day were taken in the clinical studies of HIV-1 infected subjects without evidence of toxicity.

Management

  • In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to employ the standard supportive measures, e.g., remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, employ clinical monitoring (including obtaining an electrocardiogram), and institute supportive therapy if required. The extent to which ISENTRESS may be dialyzable is unknown.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Raltegravir in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Raltegravir.png
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Raltegravir
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-(4-Fluorobenzyl)-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-(2-{[(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)carbonyl]amino}-2-propanyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4-pyrimidinecarboxamide
Identifiers
CAS number 871038-72-1
ATC code J05AX08
PubChem 11598201
Chemical data
Formula C20H21FN6O5 
Mol. mass 444.42 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Protein binding 83%
Metabolism Hepatic (UGT1A1)
Half life 9 hours
Excretion feces and urine
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

EUUS

Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes oral

Mechanism of Action

  • Raltegravir inhibits the catalytic activity of HIV-1 integrase, an HIV-1 encoded enzyme that is required for viral replication. Inhibition of integrase prevents the covalent insertion, or integration, of unintegrated linear HIV-1 DNA into the host cell genome preventing the formation of the HIV-1 provirus. The provirus is required to direct the production of progeny virus, so inhibiting integration prevents propagation of the viral infection. Raltegravir did not significantly inhibit human phosphoryltransferases including DNA polymerases α, β, and γ.

Structure

  • ISENTRESS contains raltegravir potassium, a human immunodeficiency virus integrase strand transfer inhibitor. The chemical name for raltegravir potassium is N-[(4-Fluorophenyl) methyl]-1,6-dihydro-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-[1-methyl-1-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)carbonyl]amino]ethyl]-6-oxo-4-pyrimidinecarboxamide monopotassium salt.
  • The empirical formula is C20H20FKN6O5 and the molecular weight is 482.51. The structural formula is:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Raltegravir potassium is a white to off-white powder. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in methanol, very slightly soluble in ethanol and acetonitrile and insoluble in isopropanol.
  • Each 400 mg film-coated tablet of ISENTRESS for oral administration contains 434.4 mg of raltegravir (as potassium salt), equivalent to 400 mg of raltegravir free phenol and the following inactive ingredients: calcium phosphate dibasic anhydrous, hypromellose 2208, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, poloxamer 407 (contains 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant), sodium stearyl fumarate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, polyethylene glycol 3350, polyvinyl alcohol, red iron oxide, talc and titanium dioxide.
  • Each 100 mg chewable tablet of ISENTRESS for oral administration contains 108.6 mg of raltegravir (as potassium salt), equivalent to 100 mg of raltegravir free phenol and the following inactive ingredients: ammonium hydroxide, crospovidone, ethylcellulose 20 cP, fructose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose 2910/6cP, magnesium stearate, mannitol, medium chain triglycerides, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, natural and artificial flavors (orange, banana, and masking that contains aspartame), oleic acid, PEG 400, red iron oxide, saccharin sodium, sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium stearyl fumarate, sorbitol, sucralose and yellow iron oxide.
  • Each 25 mg chewable tablet of ISENTRESS for oral administration contains 27.16 mg of raltegravir (as potassium salt), equivalent to 25 mg of raltegravir free phenol and the following inactive ingredients: ammonium hydroxide, crospovidone, ethylcellulose 20 cP, fructose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose 2910/6cP, magnesium stearate, mannitol, medium chain triglycerides, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, natural and artificial flavors (orange, banana, and masking that contains aspartame), oleic acid, PEG 400, saccharin sodium, sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium stearyl fumarate, sorbitol, sucralose and yellow iron oxide.
  • Each packet of ISENTRESS for oral suspension 100 mg, contains 108.6 mg of raltegravir (as potassium salt), equivalent to 100 mg of raltegravir free phenol and the following inactive ingredients: ammonium hydroxide, banana with other natural flavors, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, crospovidone, ethylcellulose 20 cP, fructose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose 2910/6cP, macrogol/PEG 400, magnesium stearate, maltodextrin, mannitol, medium chain triglycerides, microcrystalline cellulose, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, oleic acid, sorbitol, sucralose and sucrose.

Pharmacodynamics

  • In a monotherapy study raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) demonstrated rapid antiviral activity with mean viral load reduction of 1.66 log10 copies/mL by Day 10.
  • In the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial, Protocol 005, and Protocols 018 and 019, antiviral responses were similar among subjects regardless of dose.
  • Effects on Electrocardiogram
  • In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 31 healthy subjects were administered a single oral supratherapeutic dose of raltegravir 1600 mg and placebo. Peak raltegravir plasma concentrations were approximately 4-fold higher than the peak concentrations following a 400 mg dose. ISENTRESS did not appear to prolong the QTc interval for 12 hours postdose. After baseline and placebo adjustment, the maximum mean QTc change was -0.4 msec (1-sided 95% upper Cl: 3.1 msec).

Pharmacokinetics

  • Adults
  • Absorption
  • Raltegravir (film-coated tablet) is absorbed with a Tmax of approximately 3 hours postdose in the fasted state. Raltegravir AUC and Cmax increase dose proportionally over the dose range 100 mg to 1600 mg. Raltegravir C12hr increases dose proportionally over the dose range of 100 to 800 mg and increases slightly less than dose proportionally over the dose range 100 mg to 1600 mg. With twice-daily dosing, pharmacokinetic steady state is achieved within approximately the first 2 days of dosing. There is little to no accumulation in AUC and Cmax. The average accumulation ratio for C12hr ranged from approximately 1.2 to 1.6.
  • The absolute bioavailability of raltegravir has not been established. Based on a formulation comparison study in healthy adult volunteers, the chewable tablet and oral suspension have higher oral bioavailability compared to the 400 mg film-coated tablet.
  • In subjects who received 400 mg twice daily alone, raltegravir drug exposures were characterized by a geometric mean AUC0-12hr of 14.3 µM∙hr and C12hr of 142 nM.
  • Considerable variability was observed in the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir. For observed C12hr in Protocols 018 and 019, the coefficient of variation (CV) for inter-subject variability = 212% and the CV for intra-subject variability = 122%.
  • Effect of Food on Oral Absorption
  • ISENTRESS may be administered with or without food. Raltegravir was administered without regard to food in the pivotal safety and efficacy studies in HIV-1-infected patients. The effect of consumption of low-, moderate- and high-fat meals on steady-state raltegravir pharmacokinetics was assessed in healthy volunteers administered the 400 mg film-coated tablet. Administration of multiple doses of raltegravir following a moderate-fat meal (600 Kcal, 21 g fat) did not affect raltegravir AUC to a clinically meaningful degree with an increase of 13% relative to fasting. Raltegravir C12hr was 66% higher and Cmax was 5% higher following a moderate-fat meal compared to fasting. Administration of raltegravir following a high-fat meal (825 Kcal, 52 g fat) increased AUC and Cmax by approximately 2-fold and increased C12hr by 4.1-fold. Administration of raltegravir following a low-fat meal (300 Kcal, 2.5 g fat) decreased AUC and Cmax by 46% and 52%, respectively; C12hr was essentially unchanged. Food appears to increase pharmacokinetic variability relative to fasting.
  • Administration of the chewable tablet with a high fat meal led to an average 6% decrease in AUC, 62% decrease in Cmax, and 188% increase in C12hr compared to administration in the fasted state. Administration of the chewable tablet with a high fat meal does not affect raltegravir pharmacokinetics to a clinically meaningful degree and the chewable tablet can be administered without regard to food.
  • The effect of food on the formulation for oral suspension was not studied.
  • Distribution
  • Raltegravir is approximately 83% bound to human plasma protein over the concentration range of 2 to 10 µM.
  • In one study of HIV-1 infected subjects who received raltegravir 400 mg twice daily, raltegravir was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid. In the study (n=18), the median cerebrospinal fluid concentration was 5.8% (range 1 to 53.5%) of the corresponding plasma concentration. This median proportion was approximately 3-fold lower than the free fraction of raltegravir in plasma. The clinical relevance of this finding is unknown.
  • Metabolism and Excretion
  • The apparent terminal half-life of raltegravir is approximately 9 hours, with a shorter α-phase half-life (~1 hour) accounting for much of the AUC. Following administration of an oral dose of radiolabeled raltegravir, approximately 51 and 32% of the dose was excreted in feces and urine, respectively. In feces, only raltegravir was present, most of which is likely derived from hydrolysis of raltegravir-glucuronide secreted in bile as observed in preclinical species. Two components, namely raltegravir and raltegravir-glucuronide, were detected in urine and accounted for approximately 9 and 23% of the dose, respectively. The major circulating entity was raltegravir and represented approximately 70% of the total radioactivity; the remaining radioactivity in plasma was accounted for by raltegravir-glucuronide. Studies using isoform-selective chemical inhibitors and cDNA-expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) show that UGT1A1 is the main enzyme responsible for the formation of raltegravir-glucuronide. Thus, the data indicate that the major mechanism of clearance of raltegravir in humans is UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation.
  • Special Populations
  • Pediatric
  • Two pediatric formulations were evaluated in healthy adult volunteers, where the chewable tablet and oral suspension were compared to the 400 mg tablet. The chewable tablet and oral suspension demonstrated higher oral bioavailability, thus higher AUC, compared to the 400 mg tablet. In the same study, the oral suspension resulted in higher oral bioavailability compared to the chewable tablet. These observations resulted in proposed pediatric doses targeting 6 mg/kg/dose for the chewable tablets and oral suspension. As displayed in Table 9, the doses recommended for HIV-infected infants, children and adolescents 4 weeks to 18 years of age resulted in a pharmacokinetic profile of raltegravir similar to that observed in adults receiving 400 mg twice daily.
  • Overall, dosing in pediatric patients achieved exposures (Ctrough) above 45 nM in the majority of subjects, but some differences in exposures between formulations were observed. Pediatric patients above 25 kg administered the chewable tablets had lower trough concentrations (113 nM) compared to pediatric patients above 25 kg administered the 400 mg tablet formulation (233 nM). As a result, the 400 mg film-coated tablet is the recommended dose in patients weighing at least 25 kg; however, the chewable tablet offers an alternative regimen in patients weighing at least 25 kg who are unable to swallow the film-coated tablet. In addition, pediatric patients weighing 11 to 25 kg who were administered the chewable tablets had the lowest trough concentrations (82 nM) compared to all other pediatric subgroups.
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  • The pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in infants under 4 weeks of age has not been established.
  • Age
  • The effect of age (18 years and older) on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir was evaluated in the composite analysis. No dosage adjustment is necessary.
  • Race
  • The effect of race on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in adults was evaluated in the composite analysis. No dosage adjustment is necessary.
  • Gender
  • A study of the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir was performed in healthy adult males and females. Additionally, the effect of gender was evaluated in a composite analysis of pharmacokinetic data from 103 healthy subjects and 28 HIV-1 infected subjects receiving raltegravir monotherapy with fasted administration. No dosage adjustment is necessary.
  • Hepatic Impairment
  • Raltegravir is eliminated primarily by glucuronidation in the liver. A study of the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir was performed in adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. Additionally, hepatic impairment was evaluated in the composite pharmacokinetic analysis. There were no clinically important pharmacokinetic differences between subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. The effect of severe hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir has not been studied.
  • Renal Impairment
  • Renal clearance of unchanged drug is a minor pathway of elimination. A study of the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir was performed in adult subjects with severe renal impairment. Additionally, renal impairment was evaluated in the composite pharmacokinetic analysis. There were no clinically important pharmacokinetic differences between subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment is necessary. Because the extent to which ISENTRESS may be dialyzable is unknown, dosing before a dialysis session should be avoided.
  • UGT1A1 Polymorphism
  • There is no evidence that common UGT1A1 polymorphisms alter raltegravir pharmacokinetics to a clinically meaningful extent. In a comparison of 30 adult subjects with *28/*28 genotype (associated with reduced activity of UGT1A1) to 27 adult subjects with wild-type genotype, the geometric mean ratio (90% CI) of AUC was 1.41 (0.96, 2.09).
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Microbiology
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Raltegravir inhibits the catalytic activity of HIV-1 integrase, an HIV-1 encoded enzyme that is required for viral replication. Inhibition of integrase prevents the covalent insertion, or integration, of unintegrated linear HIV-1 DNA into the host cell genome preventing the formation of the HIV-1 provirus. The provirus is required to direct the production of progeny virus, so inhibiting integration prevents propagation of the viral infection. Raltegravir did not significantly inhibit human phosphoryltransferases including DNA polymerases α, β, and γ.
  • Antiviral Activity in Cell Culture
  • Raltegravir at concentrations of 31 ± 20 nM resulted in 95% inhibition (EC95) of viral spread (relative to an untreated virus-infected culture) in human T-lymphoid cell cultures infected with the cell-line adapted HIV-1 variant H9IIIB. In addition, 5 clinical isolates of HIV-1 subtype B had EC95 values ranging from 9 to 19 nM in cultures of mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In a single-cycle infection assay, raltegravir inhibited infection of 23 HIV-1 isolates representing 5 non-B subtypes (A, C, D, F, and G) and 5 circulating recombinant forms (AE, AG, BF, BG, and cpx) with EC50 values ranging from 5 to 12 nM. Raltegravir also inhibited replication of an HIV-2 isolate when tested in CEMx174 cells (EC95 value = 6 nM). Additive to synergistic antiretroviral activity was observed when human T-lymphoid cells infected with the H9IIIB variant of HIV-1 were incubated with raltegravir in combination with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (delavirdine, efavirenz, or nevirapine); nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (abacavir, didanosine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zalcitabine, or zidovudine); protease inhibitors (amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, or saquinavir); or the entry inhibitor enfuvirtide.
  • Resistance
  • The mutations observed in the HIV-1 integrase coding sequence that contributed to raltegravir resistance (evolved either in cell culture or in subjects treated with raltegravir) generally included an amino acid substitution at either Y143 (changed to C, H, or R) or Q148 (changed to H, K, or R) or N155 (changed to H) plus one or more additional substitutions (i.e., L74M, E92Q, Q95K/R, T97A, E138A/K, G140A/S, V151I, G163R, H183P, Y226C/D/F/H, S230R, and D232N). E92Q and F121C are occasionally seen in the absence of substitutions at Y143, Q148, or N155 in raltegravir-treatment failure subjects.
  • Treatment-Naïve Adult Subjects: By Week 96 in the STARTMRK trial, the primary raltegravir resistance-associated substitutions were observed in 4 (2 with Y143H/R and 2 with Q148H/R) of the 10 virologic failure subjects with evaluable genotypic data from paired baseline and raltegravir treatment-failure isolates.
  • Treatment-Experienced Adult Subjects: By Week 96 in the BENCHMRK trials, at least one of the primary raltegravir resistance-associated substitutions, Y143C/H/R, Q148H/K/R, and N155H, was observed in 76 of the 112 virologic failure subjects with evaluable genotypic data from paired baseline and raltegravir treatment-failure isolates. The emergence of the primary raltegravir resistance-associated substitutions was observed cumulatively in 70 subjects by Week 48 and 78 subjects by Week 96, 15.2% and 17% of the raltegravir recipients, respectively. Some (n=58) of those HIV-1 isolates harboring one or more of the primary raltegravir resistance-associated substitutions were evaluated for raltegravir susceptibility yielding a median decrease of 26.3-fold (mean 48.9 ± 44.8-fold decrease, ranging from 0.8- to 159-fold) compared to the wild-type reference.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Carcinogenicity studies of raltegravir in mice did not show any carcinogenic potential. At the highest dose levels, 400 mg/kg/day in females and 250 mg/kg/day in males, systemic exposure was 1.8-fold (females) or 1.2-fold (males) greater than the AUC (54 µM∙hr) at the 400-mg twice daily human dose. Treatment-related squamous cell carcinoma of nose/nasopharynx was observed in female rats dosed with 600 mg/kg/day raltegravir for 104 weeks. These tumors were possibly the result of local irritation and inflammation due to local deposition and/or aspiration of drug in the mucosa of the nose/nasopharynx during dosing. No tumors of the nose/nasopharynx were observed in rats dosed with 150 mg/kg/day (males) and 50 mg/kg/day (females) and the systemic exposure in rats was 1.7-fold (males) to 1.4-fold (females) greater than the AUC (54 μM∙hr) at the 400-mg twice daily human dose.
  • No evidence of mutagenicity or genotoxicity was observed in in vitro microbial mutagenesis (Ames) tests, in vitro alkaline elution assays for DNA breakage, and in vitro and in vivo chromosomal aberration studies.
  • No effect on fertility was seen in male and female rats at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day which resulted in a 3-fold exposure above the exposure at the recommended human dose.

Clinical Studies

Description of Clinical Studies
  • The evidence of durable efficacy of ISENTRESS is based on the analyses of 240-week data from a randomized, double-blind, active-control trial, STARTMRK (Protocol 021) in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected adult subjects and 96-week data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, BENCHMRK 1 and BENCHMRK 2 (Protocols 018 and 019), in antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1 infected adult subjects.
Treatment-Naïve Adult Subjects
  • STARTMRK (Protocol 021) is a Phase 3 study to evaluate the safety and antiretroviral activity of ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily + emtricitabine (+) tenofovir versus efavirenz 600 mg at bedtime plus emtricitabine (+) tenofovir in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected subjects with HIV-1 RNA >5000 copies/mL. Randomization was stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA level (≤50,000 copies/mL; and >50,000 copies/mL) and by hepatitis status.
  • Table 11 shows the demographic characteristics of subjects in the group receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily and subjects in the comparator group.
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  • Week 240 outcomes from Protocol 021 are shown in Table 12.
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  • The mean changes in CD4 count from baseline were 295 cells/mm3 in the group receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily and 236 cells/mm3 in the group receiving Efavirenz 600 mg at bedtime.
Treatment-Experienced Adult Subjects
  • BENCHMRK 1 and BENCHMRK 2 are Phase 3 studies to evaluate the safety and antiretroviral activity of ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily in combination with an optimized background therapy (OBT), versus OBT alone, in HIV-1-infected subjects, 16 years or older, with documented resistance to at least 1 drug in each of 3 classes (NNRTIs, NRTIs, PIs) of antiretroviral therapies. Randomization was stratified by degree of resistance to PI (1PI vs. >1PI) and the use of enfuvirtide in the OBT. Prior to randomization, OBT was selected by the investigator based on genotypic/phenotypic resistance testing and prior ART history.
  • Table 13 shows the demographic characteristics of subjects in the group receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily and subjects in the placebo group.
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  • Table 14 compares the characteristics of optimized background therapy at baseline in the group receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily and subjects in the control group.
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  • Week 96 outcomes for the 699 subjects randomized and treated with the recommended dose of ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily or placebo in the pooled BENCHMRK 1 and 2 studies are shown in Table 15.
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  • The mean changes in CD4 count from baseline were 118 cells/mm3 in the group receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily and 47 cells/mm3 for the control group.
  • Treatment-emergent CDC Category C events occurred in 4% of the group receiving ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily and 5% of the control group.
  • Virologic responses at Week 96 by baseline genotypic and phenotypic sensitivity score are shown in Table 16.
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  • Switch of Suppressed Subjects from Lopinavir (+) Ritonavir to Raltegravir
  • The SWITCHMRK 1 & 2 Phase 3 studies evaluated HIV-1 infected subjects receiving suppressive therapy (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on a stable regimen of lopinavir 200 mg (+) ritonavir 50 mg 2 tablets twice daily plus at least 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for >3 months) and randomized them 1:1 to either continue lopinavir (+) ritonavir (n=174 and n=178, SWITCHMRK 1 & 2, respectively) or replace lopinavir (+) ritonavir with ISENTRESS 400 mg twice daily (n=174 and n=176, respectively). The primary virology endpoint was the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL at Week 24 with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of -12% for each study; and the frequency of adverse events up to 24 weeks.
  • Subjects with a prior history of virological failure were not excluded and the number of previous antiretroviral therapies was not limited.
  • These studies were terminated after the primary efficacy analysis at Week 24 because they each failed to demonstrate non-inferiority of switching to ISENTRESS versus continuing on lopinavir (+) ritonavir. In the combined analysis of these studies at Week 24, suppression of HIV-1 RNA to less than 50 copies/mL was maintained in 82.3% of the ISENTRESS group versus 90.3% of the lopinavir (+) ritonavir group. Clinical and laboratory adverse events occurred at similar frequencies in the treatment groups.
Pediatric Subjects
  • 2 to 18 Years of Age
  • IMPAACT P1066 is a Phase I/II open label multicenter trial to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of raltegravir in HIV infected children. This study enrolled 126 treatment experienced children and adolescents 2 to 18 years of age. Subjects were stratified by age, enrolling adolescents first and then successively younger children. Subjects were enrolled into cohorts according to age and received the following formulations: Cohort I (12 to less than 18 years old), 400 mg film-coated tablet; Cohort IIa (6 to less than 12 years old), 400 mg film-coated tablet; Cohort IIb (6 to less than 12 years old), chewable tablet; Cohort III (2 to less than 6 years), chewable tablet. Raltegravir was administered with an optimized background regimen.
  • The initial dose finding stage included intensive pharmacokinetic evaluation. Dose selection was based upon achieving similar raltegravir plasma exposure and trough concentration as seen in adults, and acceptable short term safety. After dose selection, additional subjects were enrolled for evaluation of long term safety, tolerability and efficacy. Of the 126 subjects, 96 received the recommended dose of ISENTRESS.
  • These 96 subjects had a median age of 13 (range 2 to 18) years, were 51% Female, 34% Caucasian, and 59% Black. At baseline, mean plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.3 log10 copies/mL, median CD4 cell count was 481 cells/mm3 (range: 0 – 2361) and median CD4% was 23.3% (range: 0 – 44). Overall, 8% had baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA >100,000 copies/mL and 59% had a CDC HIV clinical classification of category B or C. Most subjects had previously used at least one NNRTI (78%) or one PI (83%).
  • Ninety-three (97%) subjects 2 to 18 years of age completed 24 weeks of treatment (3 discontinued due to non-compliance). At Week 24, 54% achieved HIV RNA <50 copies/mL; 66% achieved HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. The mean CD4 count (percent) increase from baseline to Week 24 was 119 cells/mm3 (3.8%).
  • 4 Weeks to Less Than 2 Years of Age
  • IMPAACT P1066 also enrolled HIV-infected, infants and toddlers 4 weeks to less than 2 years of age (Cohorts IV and V) who had received prior antiretroviral therapy either as prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and/or as combination antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV infection. Raltegravir was administered as an oral suspension without regard to food in combination with an optimized background regimen.
  • The 26 subjects had a median age of 28 weeks (range: 4 -100), were 35% female, 85% Black and 8% Caucasian. At baseline, mean plasma HIV-1 RNA was 5.7 log10 copies/mL (range: 3.1 – 7), median CD4 cell count was 1400 cells/mm3 (range: 131 – 3648) and median CD4% was 18.6% (range: 3.3 – 39.3). Overall, 69% had baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA exceeding 100,000 copies/mL and 23% had a CDC HIV clinical classification of category B or C. None of the 26 patients were completely treatment naïve. All infants under 6 months of age had received nevirapine or zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-infant transmission, and 43% of patients greater than 6 months of age had received two or more antiretrovirals.
  • Of the 26 treated subjects, 23 subjects were included in the Week 24 and 48 efficacy analyses, respectively. All 26 treated subjects were included for safety analyses.
  • At Week 24, 39% achieved HIV RNA <50 copies/mL and 61% achieved HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. The mean CD4 count (percent) increase from baseline to Week 24 was 500 cells/mm3 (7.5%).
  • At Week 48, 44% achieved HIV RNA <50 copies/mL and 61% achieved HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. The mean CD4 count (percent) increase from baseline to Week 48 was 492 cells/mm3 (7.8%).

How Supplied

  • ISENTRESS tablets 400 mg are pink, oval-shaped, film-coated tablets with "227" on one side. They are supplied as follows:
  • NDC 0006-0227-61 unit-of-use bottles of 60.
  • No. 3894
  • ISENTRESS tablets 100 mg are pale orange, oval-shaped, orange-banana flavored, chewable tablets scored on both sides and imprinted on one face with the Merck logo and "477" on opposite sides of the score. They are supplied as follows:
  • NDC 0006-0477-61 unit-of-use bottles of 60.
  • No. 3972
  • ISENTRESS tablets 25 mg are pale yellow, round, orange-banana flavored, chewable tablets with the Merck logo on one side and "473" on the other side. They are supplied as follows:
  • NDC 0006-0473-61 unit-of-use bottles of 60.
  • No. 3965
  • ISENTRESS for oral suspension 100 mg is a white to off-white granular powder that may contain yellow or beige to tan particles, in child resistant single-use foil packets, packaged as a kit with two 5 mL dosing syringes and two mixing cups. It is supplied as follows:
  • NDC 0006-3603-60 unit of use carton with 60 packets.
  • NDC 0006-3603-01 individual packet.
  • No. 3603
  • Storage and Handling
  • 400 mg Film-coated Tablets, Chewable Tablets and For Oral Suspension
  • Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F).
  • Chewable Tablets
  • Store in the original package with the bottle tightly closed. Keep the desiccant in the bottle to protect from moisture.
  • For Oral Suspension
  • Store in the original container. Do not open foil packet until ready for use.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Raltegravir Storage in the drug label.

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Patient Counseling Information

  • Advise patients to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use).
  • General Information
  • Instruct patients to reread patient labeling each time the prescription is renewed.
  • Patients should remain under the care of a physician when using ISENTRESS. Instruct patients to inform their physician or pharmacist if they develop any unusual symptom, or if any known symptom persists or worsens.
  • ISENTRESS is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection such as opportunistic infections. Tell patients that sustained decreases in plasma HIV RNA have been associated with a reduced risk of progression to AIDS and death. Patients should remain on continuous HIV therapy to control HIV infection and decrease HIV-related illnesses.
  • Advise patients to avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1 infection to others.
  • Do not share needles or other injection equipment.
  • Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
  • Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safe sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
  • Do not breastfeed. Mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk. Also, it is unknown if ISENTRESS can be passed to the baby through breast milk and whether it could harm the baby.
  • General Dosing Instructions
  • Instruct patients that if they miss a dose of ISENTRESS, they should take it as soon as they remember. If they do not remember until it is time for the next dose, instruct them to skip the missed dose and go back to the regular schedule. Instruct patients not to double their next dose or take more than the prescribed dose.
  • Film-Coated Tablets and Chewable Tablets
  • Inform patients that the chewable tablet forms can be chewed or swallowed whole, but the film-coated tablets must be swallowed whole.
  • For Oral Suspension
  • Instruct parents and/or caregivers to read the Instructions for Use before preparing and administering ISENTRESS for oral suspension to pediatric patients. Instruct parents and/or caregivers that ISENTRESS for oral suspension should be administered within 30 minutes of mixing.
  • Severe and Potentially Life-threatening Rash
  • Inform patients that severe and potentially life-threatening rash has been reported. Advise patients to immediately contact their healthcare provider if they develop rash. Instruct patients to immediately stop taking ISENTRESS and other suspect agents, and seek medical attention if they develop a rash associated with any of the following symptoms as it may be a sign of a more serious reaction such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis or severe hypersensitivity: fever, generally ill feeling, extreme tiredness, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, eye inflammation, facial swelling, swelling of the eyes, lips, mouth, breathing difficulty, and/or signs and symptoms of liver problems (e.g., yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark or tea colored urine, pale colored stools/bowel movements, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or pain, aching or sensitivity on the right side below the ribs). Inform patients that if severe rash occurs, their physician will closely monitor them, order laboratory tests and initiate appropriate therapy.
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Before patients begin ISENTRESS, ask them if they have a history of rhabdomyolysis, myopathy or increased creatine kinase or if they are taking medications known to cause these conditions such as statins, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil or zidovudine.
  • Instruct patients to immediately report to their healthcare provider any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness while taking ISENTRESS.
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Alert patients with phenylketonuria that ISENTRESS Chewable Tablets contain phenylalanine.
  • Drug Interactions
  • Instruct patients to avoid taking aluminum and/or magnesium containing antacids during treatment with ISENTRESS.
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Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Raltegravir interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Raltegravir Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "ISENTRESS (raltegravir) tablet, film coated ISENTRESS (raltegravir) tablet, chewable ISENTRESS (raltegravir) granule, for suspension [Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.]".

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