Fenofibrate

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Fenofibrate
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sheng Shi, M.D. [2]; Rabin Bista, M.B.B.S. [3]

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Overview

Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator receptor alpha agonist that is FDA approved for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia. Common adverse reactions include abdominal pain, nausea, AST/SGOT level raised, abnormal liver function tests , backache, rhinitis.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

General Considerations (tablet)

  • Patients should be placed on an appropriate lipid-lowering diet before receiving fenofibrate tablets, and should continue this diet during treatment with fenofibrate tablets. Fenofibrate tablets can be given without regard to meals.
  • The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy, thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, are sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of the specific etiologic agent may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia.
  • Lipid levels should be monitored periodically and consideration should be given to reducing the dosage of fenofibrate tablets if lipid levels fall significantly below the targeted range.
  • Therapy should be withdrawn in patients who do not have an adequate response after two months of treatment with the maximum recommended dose of 145 mg once daily.

General Considerations (capsule)

  • Fenofibrate capsules should be given with meals thereby optimizing the absorption of the medication.
  • Patients should be advised to swallow fenofibrate capsules whole. Do not open, crush, dissolve or chew capsules.
  • Patients should be placed on an appropriate lipid-lowering diet before receiving fenofibrate capsules, and should continue this diet during treatment with fenofibrate capsules.
  • The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy, thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, are sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of the specific etiologic agent may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia.
  • Periodic determination of serum lipids should be obtained during initial therapy in order to establish the lowest effective dose of fenofibrate. Therapy should be withdrawn in patients who do not have an adequate response after two months of treatment with the maximum recommended dose of 150 mg per day.
  • Consideration should be given to reducing the dosage of fenofibrate if lipid levels fall significantly below the targeted range.

Primary Hypercholesterolemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia

  • Indication
  • Dosing Information (tablet)
  • Initial dosage: 145 mg PO qd
  • Dosing Information (capsule)
  • Initial dosage: 150 mg PO qd

Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

  • Indication
  • Fenofibrate tablets are also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for treatment of adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Improving glycemic control in diabetic patients showing fasting chylomicronemia will usually obviate the need for pharmacologic intervention.
  • Markedly elevated levels of serum triglycerides (e.g. >2000 mg/dL) may increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. The effect of fenofibrate therapy on reducing this risk has not been adequately studied.
  • Dosing Information (tablet)
  • Initial dosage: 48 -145 mg/day. Dosage should be individualized according to patient response, and should be adjusted if necessary following repeat lipid determinations at 4 to 8 week intervals.
  • Maximum dosage: 145 mg PO qd
  • Dosing Information (capsule)
  • Initial dosage: 50-150 mg/day. Dosage should be individualized according to patient response, and should be adjusted if necessary following repeat lipid determination at 4 to 8 week intervals.
  • Maximum dosage: 150 mg PO qd

Impaired Renal Function

  • Dosing information (tablet)
  • In patients having mild to moderately impaired renal function:
  • Initial dosage: 48 mg/day , and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose.
  • The use of fenofibrate tablets should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment.
  • Dosing Information (capsule)
  • Initial dosage: 50 mg/day , and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose.
  • The use of fenofibrate tablets should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment.

Geriatric Patients

  • Dosing Information
  • Dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

Management of Hyperuricemia
  • Class of Recommendation: Not Applicable
  • Dosing Information
  • Not Applicable

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of fenofibrate in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

FDA package insert for fenofibrate contains no information regarding FDA-labeled indications and dosage information for children.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of fenofibrate sandbox in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of fenofibrate sandbox in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Mortality and Coronary Heart Disease Morbidity

  • The effect of Antara on coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality has not been established.
  • The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Lipid (ACCORD Lipid) trial was a randomized placebo-controlled study of 5518 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on background statin therapy treated with fenofibrate. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.7 years. Fenofibrate plus statin combination therapy showed a non significant 8% relative risk reduction in the primary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non fatal stroke, and cardiovascular disease death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.79- 1.08) (p=0.32) as compared to statin monotherapy. In a gender subgroup analysis, the hazard ratio for MACE in men receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.99), and the hazard ratio for MACE in women receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 1.38 (95% CI 0.98-1.94) (interaction p=0.01). The clinical significance of this subgroup finding is unclear.
  • The fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was a 5-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate demonstrated a non-significant 11% relative reduction in the primary outcome of coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05, p=0.16) and a significant 11% reduction in the secondary outcome of total cardiovascular disease events (HR 0.89 [0.80-0.99], p=0.04). There was a non-significant 11% (HR 1.11 [0.95, 1.29], p=0.18) and 19% (HR 1.19 [0.90, 1.57], p=0.22) increase in total and coronary heart disease mortality, respectively, with fenofibrate as compared to placebo.
  • Because of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical similarities between TRICOR (fenofibrate tablets), clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, the adverse findings in 4 large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies with these other fibrate drugs may also apply to Antara.
  • In the Coronary Drug Project, a large study of post myocardial infarction of patients treated for 5 years with clofibrate, there was no difference in mortality seen between the clofibrate group and the placebo group. There was however, a difference in the rate of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis requiring surgery between the two groups (3.0% vs. 1.8%).
  • In a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5000 subjects without known coronary artery disease were treated with placebo or clofibrate for 5 years and followed for an additional one year. There was a statistically significant, higher age-adjusted all-cause mortality in the clofibrate group compared with the placebo group (5.70% vs. 3.96%, p≤0.01). Excess mortality was due to a 33% increase in non-cardiovascular causes, including malignancy, post-cholecystectomy complications, and pancreatitis. This appeared to confirm the higher risk of gallbladder disease seen in clofibrate-treated patients studied in the Coronary Drug Project.
  • The Helsinki Heart Study was a large (n=4081) study of middle-aged men without a history of coronary artery disease. Subjects received either placebo or gemfibrozil for 5 years, with a 3.5 year open extension afterward. Total mortality was numerically higher in the gemfibrozil randomization group but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.19, 95% confidence interval for relative risk G:P=0.91-1.64). Although cancer deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group (p=0.11), cancers (excluding basal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed with equal frequency in both study groups. Due to the limited size of the study, the relative risk of death from any cause was not shown to be different than that seen in the 9 year follow-up data from the WHO study (RR=1.29)
  • A secondary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study enrolled middle-aged men excluded from the primary prevention study because of known or suspected coronary heart disease. Subjects received gemfibrozil or placebo for 5 years. Although cardiac deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group, this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-5.05).

Skeletal Muscle

  • Data from observational studies suggest that the risk for rhabdomyolysis is increased when fibrates, in particularly gemfibrozil, are co-administered with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin). The combination should be avoided unless the benefit of further alterations in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination.
  • Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. CPK levels should be assessed in patients reporting these symptoms, and Antara therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy/myositis is suspected or diagnosed.

Liver Function

  • Fenofibrate at doses equivalent to 90 mg Antara per day has been associated with increases in serum transaminases (AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)).
  • In a pooled analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials, increases to >3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 5.3% of patients taking fenofibrate versus 1.1% of patients treated with placebo. When transaminase determinations were followed either after discontinuation of treatment or during continued treatment, a return to normal limits was usually observed. The incidence of increases in transaminases levels related to fenofibrate therapy appears to be dose related.
  • Baseline and regular periodic monitoring of liver function, including serum ALT (SGPT) should be performed for the duration of therapy with Antara, and therapy discontinued if enzyme levels persist above three times the normal limit.

Serum Creatinine

  • Elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients on fenofibrate. These elevations tend to return to baseline following discontinuation of fenofibrate. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. Monitor renal function in patients with renal impairment taking Antara. Renal monitoring should also be considered for patients taking Antara at risk for renal insufficiency such as the elderly and patients with diabetes.

Cholelithiasis

Coumarin Anticoagulants

  • Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Antara because of the potentiation of coumarin-type anti-coagulants in prolonging the prothrombin time/International Normalized Ratio (INR/INR). To prevent bleeding complications, frequent monitoring of PT/INR and dose adjustment of the anticoagulant are recommended until PT/INR has stabilized.

Pancreatitis

Hematologic Changes

  • Mild to moderate hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell decreases have been observed in patients following initiation of fenofibrate therapy. However, these levels stabilize during long-term administration. Thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrate. Periodic monitoring of red and white blood cell counts are recommended during the first 12 months of Antara administration.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

  • Acute hypersensitivity reactions such as stevens-johnson syndrome and toxic necrolysis requiring patient hospitalization and treatment with steroids have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrates. Urticaria was seen in 1.1 vs. 0%, and rash in 1.4 vs. 0.8% of fenofibrate and placebo patients, respectively, in controlled trials.

Veno Thromboembolic Disease

  • In the FIELD trial, pulmonary embolus (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed at higher rates in the fenofibrate than the placebo-treated group. Of 9795 patients enrolled in FIELD, there were 4900 in the placebo group and 4895 in the fenofibrate group. For DVT, there were 48 events (1%) in the placebo group and 67 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.074); and for PE, there were 32 (0.7%) events in the placebo group and 53 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.022).
  • In the Coronary Drug Project, a higher proportion of the clofibrate group experienced definite or suspected fatal or non fatal pulmonary embolism or thrombophlebitis than the placebo group (5.2% vs. 3.3% at five years; p < 0.01).

Paradoxical Decreases in HDL Cholesterol Levels

  • There have been post marketing and clinical trial reports of severe decreases in HDL cholesterol levels (as low as 2 mg/dL) occurring in diabetic and non-diabetic patients initiated on fibrate therapy. The decrease in HDL-C is mirrored by a decrease in apolipoprotein A1. This decrease has been reported to occur within 2 weeks to years after initiation of fibrate therapy. The HDL-C levels remain depressed until fibrate therapy has been withdrawn; the response to withdrawal of fibrate therapy is rapid and sustained. The clinical significance of this decrease in HDL-C is unknown. It is recommended that HDL-C levels be checked within the first few months after initiation of fibrate therapy. If a severely depressed HDL-C level is detected, fibrate therapy should be withdrawn, and the HDL-C level monitored until it has returned to baseline, and fibrate therapy should not be re-initiated.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in clinical practice.
  • Adverse events reported by 2% or more of patients treated with fenofibrate and greater than placebo during double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, regardless of causality, are listed in Table 1. Adverse reactions led to discontinuation of treatment in 5.0% of patients treated with fenofibrate and in 3.0% treated with placebo. Increases in liver function tests were the most frequent events, causing discontinuation of fenofibrate treatment in 1.6% of patients in double-blind trials.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Postmarketing Experience

Drug Interactions

Coumarin Anticoagulants

  • Potentiation of coumarin-type anticoagulant effects has been observed with prolongation of the PT/INR.
  • Caution should be exercised when coumarin anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Antara. The dosage of the anticoagulants should be reduced to maintain the PT/INR at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent PT/INR determinations are advisable until it has been definitely determined that the PT/INR has stabilized .

Immunosuppressants

  • Immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus can produce nephrotoxicity with decreases in creatinine clearance and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including Antara, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration of renal function. The benefits and risks of using Antara with immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents should be carefully considered, and the lowest effective dose employed.

Bile-Acid Binding Resins

Since bile acid binding resins may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take Antara at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption.

Colchicine

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): C

  • Safety in pregnant women has not been established. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of fenofibrate in pregnant women. * Fenofibrate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • In female rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate from 15 days prior to mating through weaning, maternal toxicity was observed at 0.3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2.
  • In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, adverse developmental findings were not observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2). At higher multiples of human doses, evidence of maternal toxicity was observed.
  • In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 to 18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, aborted litters were observed at 150 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons: mg/m2). No developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2).
  • In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), maternal toxicity was observed at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2.


Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Fenofibrate in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Fenofibrate during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Fenofibrate should not be used in nursing mothers. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.

Geriatic Use

  • Fenofibric acid is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Fenofibric acid exposure is not influenced by age. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function. Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking Antara.

Gender

No pharmacokinetic difference between males and females has been observed for fenofibrate.

Race

  • The influence of race on the pharmacokinetics of fenofibrate has not been studied; however, fenofibrate is not metabolized by enzymes known for exhibiting inter-ethnic variability.

Renal Impairment

  • Fenofibrate should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended.

Hepatic Impairment

The use of Antara has not been evaluated in subjects with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Fenofibrate in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Fenofibrate in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Oral

Monitoring

FDA package insert for fenofibrate contains no information regarding drug monitoring.

IV Compatibility

FDA package insert for fenofibrate contains no information regarding IV compatibility.

Overdosage

  • There is no specific treatment for overdose with Antara. General supportive care of the patient is indicated, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of clinical status, should an overdose occur. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage; usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. Because fenofibrate is highly bound to plasma proteins, hemodialysis should not be considered.

Pharmacology

Fenofibrate structure.png
Fenofibrate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
propan-2-yl 2-{4-[(4-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]phenoxy}-2-methylpropanoate
Identifiers
CAS number 49562-28-9
ATC code C10AB05
PubChem 3339
DrugBank DB01039
Chemical data
Formula C20H21ClO4 
Mol. mass 360.831 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Protein binding 99%
Metabolism glucuronidation
Half life 20 hours
Excretion urine (60%), feces (25%)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

Legend

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

  • The active moiety of Antara is fenofibric acid. The pharmacological effects of fenofibric acid in both animals and humans have been extensively studied through oral administration of fenofibrate.
  • The lipid lowering effects of fenofibric acid seen in clinical practice have been explained in vivo in transgenic mice and in vitro in human hepatocyte cultures by the activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Through this mechanism, fenofibrate increases lipolysis and elimination of triglyceride-rich particles from plasma by activating lipoprotein lipase and reducing production of apoprotein C-III (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity). The resulting decrease in triglycerides produces an alteration in the size and composition of LDL from small, dense particles (which are thought to be atherogenic due to their susceptibility to oxidation), to large buoyant particles. These larger particles have a greater affinity for cholesterol receptors and are catabolized rapidly. Activation of PPARα also induces an increase in the synthesis of apoproteins A-I, A-II and HDL-cholesterol.
  • Fenofibrate also reduces serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic and normal individuals by increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid.

Structure

  • Antara (fenofibrate) Capsules, is a lipid regulating agent available as capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains 30 mg or 90 mg of micronized fenofibrate. The chemical name for fenofibrate is 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl) phenoxy] 2-methyl-propanoic acid, l-methylethyl ester with the following structural formula:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The empirical formula is C20H21O4Cl and the molecular weight is 360.83; fenofibrate is insoluble in water. The melting point is 79°-82°C. Fenofibrate is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.
  • Inactive Ingredients: Each gelatin capsule contains hypromellose, simethicone emulsion, sodium lauryl sulphate, sugar spheres and talc. The capsule shell contains the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, D & C Yellow 10, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, gelatin, shellac, sodium lauryl sulphate, titanium dioxide. The 30 mg capsule shell contains following additional inactive ingredients: FD & C Blue 2, yellow iron oxide. The 90 mg capsule shell contains following additional inactive ingredients: FD & C Blue 1, FD & C Yellow 6.

Pharmacodynamics

  • A variety of clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total-C, DL-C, and Apo B, an LDL membrane complex, are associated with human atherosclerosis. Similarly, decreased levels of HDL-C and its transport complex, apolipoprotein A (Apo AI and Apo All) are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides, and inversely with the level of HDL-C. The independent effect of raising HDL-C or lowering TG on the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Fenofibrate is a pro-drug of the active chemical moiety fenofibric acid. Fenofibrate is converted by ester hydrolysis in the body to fenofibric acid which is the active constituent measurable in the circulation.

Absorption

  • The absolute bioavailability of fenofibrate cannot be determined as the compound is virtually insoluble in aqueous media suitable for injection. However, fenofibrate is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Following oral administration in healthy volunteers, approximately 60% of a single dose of radiolabelled fenofibrate appeared in urine, primarily as fenofibric acid and its glucuronate conjugate, and 25% was excreted in the feces. Peak plasma levels of fenofibric acid from Antara capsules 90 mg occur within 2 to 6 hours after administration.
  • In the presence of a high-fat meal, there was a 26.7% increase in AUC and 15.35% increase in Cmax of fenofibric acid from Antara capsule 30mg relative to fasting state,

Distribution

  • In healthy volunteers, steady-state plasma levels of fenofibric acid were shown to be achieved within a week of dosing and did not demonstrate accumulation across time following multiple dose administration. Serum protein binding was approximately 99% in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects.

Metabolism

  • Following oral administration, fenofibrate is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases to the active metabolite, fenofibric acid; no unchanged fenofibrate is detected in plasma.
  • Fenofibric acid is primarily conjugated with glucuronic acid and then excreted in urine. A small amount of fenofibric acid is reduced at the carbonyl moiety to a benzhydrol metabolite which is, in turn, conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted in urine.
  • In vivo metabolism data indicate that neither fenofibrate nor fenofibric acid undergo oxidative metabolism (e.g., cytochrome P450) to a significant extent.

Elimination

  • After absorption, fenofibrate is mainly excreted in the urine in the form of metabolites, primarily fenofibric acid and fenofibric acid glucuronide. After administration of radiolabeled fenofibrate, approximately 60% of the dose appeared in the urine and 25% was excreted in the feces.
  • Fenofibrate acid from Antara is eliminated with a half-life of 23 hours, allowing once daily administration in a clinical setting.

Geriatrics

  • In elderly volunteers 77 to 87 years of age, the oral clearance of fenofibric acid following a single oral dose of fenofibrate was 1.2 L/h, which compares to 1.1 L/h in young adults. This indicates that a similar dosage regimen can be used in the elderly with normal renal function, without increasing accumulation of the drug or metabolites.

Pediatrics

  • The pharmacokinetics of Antara has not been studied in pediatric populations.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility

  • Two dietary carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in rats with fenofibrate. In the first 24-month study, Wistar rats were dosed with fenofibrate at 10, 45, and 200 mg/kg/day, approximately 0.3, 1, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area comparisons (mg/m2). At a dose of 200 mg/kg/day (at 6 times the MRHD), the incidence of liver carcinomas was significantly increased in both sexes. A statistically significant increase in pancreatic carcinomas was observed in males at 1 and 6 times the MRHD; an increase in pancreatic adenomas and benign testicular interstitial cell tumors was observed at 6 times the MRHD in males. In a second 24-month rat carcinogenicity study in a different strain of rats (Sprague-Dawley), doses of 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD) produced significant increases in the incidence of pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes and increases in testicular interstitial cell tumors in males at 2 times the MRHD.
  • A 117-week carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats comparing three drugs: fenofibrate 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD), clofibrate (400 mg/kg/day; 2 times the human dose), and gemfibrozil (250 mg/kg/day; 2 times the human dose, based on mg/m2 surface area). Fenofibrate increased pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes. clofibrate increased hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic acinar adenomas in males and hepatic neoplastic nodules in females. gemfibrozil increased hepatic neoplastic nodules in males and females, while all three drugs increased testicular interstitial cell tumors in males.
  • In a 21-month study in CF-1 mice, fenofibrate 10, 45, and 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 1, and 3 times the MRHD on the basis of mg/m2 surface area) significantly increased the liver carcinomas in both sexes at 3 times the MRHD. In a second 18-month study at 10, 60, and 200 mg/kg/day, fenofibrate significantly increased the liver carcinomas in male mice and liver adenomas in female mice at 3 times the MRHD.
  • Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated peroxisomal proliferation following fenofibrate administration to the rat. An adequate study to test for peroxisome proliferation in humans has not been done, but changes in peroxisome morphology and numbers have been observed in humans after treatment with other members of the fibrate class when liver biopsies were compared before and after treatment in the same individual.

Mutagenesis

Impairment of Fertility

  • In fertility studies rats were given oral dietary doses of fenofibrate, males received 61 days prior to mating and females 15 days prior to mating through weaning which resulted in no adverse effect on fertility at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (~10 times the MRHD, based on mg/m2surface area comparisons)

Clinical Studies

Primary Hypercholesterolemia (Heterozygous Familial and Non familial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia

  • The effects of fenofibrate at a dose equivalent to 90 mg Antara per day were assessed from four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group studies including patients with the following mean baseline lipid values: total-C 306.9 mg/dL; LDL-C 213.8 mg/dL; HDL-C 52.3 mg/dL; and triglycerides 191.0 mg/dL. Fenofibrate therapy lowered LDL-C, Total-C, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Fenofibrate therapy also lowered triglycerides and raised HDL-C.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In a subset of the subjects, measurements of Apo B were conducted. Fenofibrate treatment significantly reduced Apo B from baseline to endpoint as compared with placebo (-25.1% vs. 2.4%, p<0.0001, n=213 and 143 respectively).

Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

  • The effects of fenofibrate on serum triglycerides were studied in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 147 hypertriglyceridemic patients. Patients were treated for eight weeks under protocols that differed only in that one entered patients with baseline TG levels of 500 to 1500 mg/dL, and the other TG levels of 350 to 499 mg/dL. In patients with hypertriglyceridemia and normal cholesterolemia with or without hyperchylomicronemia , treatment with fenofibrate at dosages equivalent to 90 mg Antara per day decreased primarily very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol Treatment of patients with elevated triglycerides often results in an increase of LDL-C.

How Supplied

Fenofibrate Tablet

  • Fenofibrate tablets are available in two strengths:
48 mg: white to off-white biconvex oblong tablet, imprinted with "F" on one side and "48" on the other side, available in bottles of 90 (NDC 68682-525-01).
145 mg: white to off-white biconvex oblong tablet, imprinted with "F" on one side and "145" on the other side, available in bottles of 90 (NDC 68682-528-01).

Fenofibrate Capsule

  • Fenofibrate Capsules, USP are available in two strengths:
50 mg: Size 3 white opaque/white opaque gelatin capsule, imprinted in black ink with “50” between lines on the body, “G 246” on the cap and containing a white to almost white paste, available in bottles of 90 (NDC 61269-210-90).
150 mg: Size 1 white opaque/white opaque gelatin capsule, imprinted in green ink with “150” between lines on the body, “G 248” on the cap and containing a white to almost white paste, available in bottles of 90 (NDC 61269-212-90).

Storage

Fenofibrate Tablet

  • Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F). [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of the reach of children. Protect from moisture.

Fenofibrate Capsule

  • Store at Controlled Room Temperature, 15°C - 30°C (59°F - 86°F). Keep out of the reach of children. Protect from moisture and light.

Images

Drug Images

Package and Label Display Panel

Fenofibrate label 01.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate label 02.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate label 03.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate label 04.jpg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate panel 01.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate panel 02.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate panel 03.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate panel 04.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Fenofibrate panel 05.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • Patients should be advised:
  • Of the potential benefits and risks of fenofibrate capsules.
  • Not to use fenofibrate capsules if there is a known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate or fenofibric acid.
  • Of medications that should not be taken in combination with fenofibrate capsules.
  • That if they are taking coumarin anticoagulants, fenofibrate capsules may increase their anti-coagulant effect, and increased monitoring may be necessary.
  • To inform their physician of all medications, supplements, and herbal preparations they are taking and any change in their medical condition.
  • To inform a physician prescribing a new medication, that they are taking fenofibrate capsules.
  • To continue to follow an appropriate lipid-modifying diet while taking fenofibrate capsules.
  • To take fenofibrate capsules once daily at the prescribed dose, swallowing each capsule whole.
  • To inform their physician of any muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness; onset of abdominal pain; or any other new symptoms.
  • To return to their physician's office for routine monitoring.

Precautions with Alcohol

Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy.

Brand Names

There is limited information regarding Fenofibrate Brand Names in the drug label.

Look-Alike Drug Names

Tricor - Tracleer[1]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "https://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)

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