Low density lipoprotein risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [2]

Overview

Risk factors for high LDL include genetic predisposition, aging, and unhealthy life style choices.

Risk Factors for High LDL

Common Risk Factors

Common risk factors for elevated LDL concentration include:

  • Genetic predisposition and family: The genetic predisposition to elevated LDL most probably involves a polygenic mechanism and a variable penetrance.[1]
  • Aging: Men who are 45 years or older and women who are 55 years or older are at increased risk of having high LDL levels.[2][3]
  • Life style choices:[6]
    • A diet high in trans fat and saturated fat
    • Physical inactivity
    • Smoking (especially in diabetics)
    • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Overweight or obesity[7]
  • Puberty: Puberty can predispose to both increase in LDL level and LDL particle size.[10][11]

Less Common Risk Factors

References

  1. Talmud, PJ.; Shah, S.; Whittall, R.; Futema, M.; Howard, P.; Cooper, JA.; Harrison, SC.; Li, K.; Drenos, F. (2013). "Use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol gene score to distinguish patients with polygenic and monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia: a case-control study". Lancet. 381 (9874): 1293–301. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62127-8. PMID 23433573. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Félix-Redondo, FJ.; Grau, M.; Fernández-Bergés, D. (2013). "Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Facts and gaps". Aging Dis. 4 (3): 154–69. PMID 23730531. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Parini, P.; Angelin, B.; Rudling, M. (1999). "Cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in aging: reversal of hypercholesterolemia by growth hormone treatment in old rats". Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 19 (4): 832–9. PMID 10195906. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Lee, JS.; Hayashi, K.; Mishra, G.; Yasui, T.; Kubota, T.; Mizunuma, H. (2013). "Independent association between age at natural menopause and hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus: Japan nurses' health study". J Atheroscler Thromb. 20 (2): 161–9. PMID 23079582. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Honjo, H.; Tanaka, K.; Urabe, M.; Naitoh, K.; Ogino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Okada, H. "Menopause and hyperlipidemia: pravastatin lowers lipid levels without decreasing endogenous estrogens". Clin Ther. 14 (5): 699–707. PMID 1345259.
  6. Magnussen, CG.; Thomson, R.; Cleland, VJ.; Ukoumunne, OC.; Dwyer, T.; Venn, A. (2011). "Factors affecting the stability of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels from youth to adulthood: evidence from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 165 (1): 68–76. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.246. PMID 21199983. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Kesaniemi, YA.; Grundy, SM. "Increased low density lipoprotein production associated with obesity". Arteriosclerosis. 3 (2): 170–7. PMID 6838434.
  8. Harris, MI. (2008). "Hypercholesterolemia in diabetes and glucose intolerance in the U.S. population". Indian J Clin Biochem. 23 (3): 209–17. doi:10.1007/s12291-008-0048-9. PMID 2310575. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. Emet, T.; Ustüner, I.; Güven, SG.; Balık, G.; Ural, UM.; Tekin, YB.; Sentürk, S.; Sahin, FK.; Avşar, AF. (2013). "Plasma lipids and lipoproteins during pregnancy and related pregnancy outcomes". Arch Gynecol Obstet. 288 (1): 49–55. doi:10.1007/s00404-013-2750-y. PMID 23400357. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Kaitosaari, T.; Simell, O.; Viikari, J.; Raitakari, O.; Siltala, M.; Hakanen, M.; Leino, A.; Jokinen, E.; Rönnemaa, T. (2009). "Tracking and determinants of LDL particle size in healthy children from 7 to 11 years of age: the STRIP Study". Eur J Pediatr. 168 (5): 531–9. doi:10.1007/s00431-008-0780-4. PMID 18604555. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  11. Chen, TJ.; Ji, CY.; Hu, YH. (2009). "Genetic and environmental influences on serum lipids and the effects of puberty: a Chinese twin study". Acta Paediatr. 98 (6): 1029–36. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01257.x. PMID 19292833. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  12. Rao, P.; Reddy, GC.; Kanagasabapathy, AS. "Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome in Chronic Kidney disease".



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