Apolipoprotein D

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene.[1][2][3] Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced in the liver, apolipoprotein D is mainly produced in the brain and testes.[4]


Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism.[3] ApoD has also been shown to be an important link in the transient interaction between HDL and LDL particles and between HDL particles and cells.[5]

Clinical significance

APOD is a biomarker of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). APOD is an androgen up-regulated gene in normal scrotal fibroblast cells in comparison to CAIS labia majora cells.[6]

APOD is associated with neurological disorders and nerve injury, especially related to myelin sheath. APOD was shown to be elevated in a rat model of stroke.[4] APOD is elevated in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease.[4]


  1. Drayna DT, McLean JW, Wion KL, Trent JM, Drabkin HA, Lawn RM (Aug 1987). "Human apolipoprotein D gene: gene sequence, chromosome localization, and homology to the alpha 2u-globulin superfamily". DNA. 6 (3): 199–204. doi:10.1089/dna.1987.6.199. PMID 2439269.
  2. Drayna D, Fielding C, McLean J, Baer B, Castro G, Chen E, Comstock L, Henzel W, Kohr W, Rhee L, et al. (Jan 1987). "Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA". J Biol Chem. 261 (35): 16535–9. PMID 3453108.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Muffat J, Walker DW (2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging and age-related diseases". Cell Cycle. 9 (2): 269–273. doi:10.4161/cc.9.2.10433. PMC 3691099. PMID 20023409.
  5. Braesch-Andersen S; et al. (December 2014). "ApoD Mediates Binding of HDL to LDL and to Growing T24 Carcinoma". PLOS ONE. 9 (12): e115180. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115180. PMC 4267786. PMID 25513803.
  6. Appari M, Werner R, Wünsch L, Cario G, Demeter J, Hiort O, Riepe F, Brooks JD, Holterhus PM (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Mol. Med. 87 (6): 623–32. doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0462-3. PMID 19330472.

Further reading

External links